Wednesday, 16 January 2019

Star Myths

By : Arvind Bhagwath


Festivals in Hinduism like Vaikunta Ekadashi during winter solstice (Dec-Jan) haunted me to find the connection between human and God via Heaven Gate. The Vaishnava (Worshipers/Followers of Vishnu) sect believes that ‘Vaikunta Dwaram’ or ‘the gate’ to the ‘Lord's Inner Sanctum’ is opened on this day. We see chariot festivals in almost every major temples and millions visit their respective temples in India during this day. People believe that the dwaram (passage) is opened only on Vaikuntha Ekadashi and it is believed that any person who passes through this `Vaikuntha Dwaram' on this particular day attains salvation. The Shaiva sect observes the day as Trikoti Ekadashi, a religious observance where all the deities in the Hindu pantheon pay obeisance to Lord Sri Shiva. In same coincidence, we also have Christmas being celebrated at same time all over world and something made me feel that this coincidence is also related to Egyptian pyramids in which they believed that ‘scared gate’ enabled the deceased and mummified pharaoh to be transformed to God at same time during Winter Solstice. The idea is basically resurrection of God and this made me to investigate all the ancient symbols of Proto-Indo Europeans, Egyptians, Indus Valley,Sumerian cultures etc and was able to see almost similar myths in every culture. 

Let us start with findings from one of the most ancient archaeological remains at Gobekli Tepe (Turkey) of around 11,500BCE. From the image belowyou can clearly see proto-Vedic astrology carved on stone pillars as these ancient civilization located circumpolar constellations (Draco/Shishumara and Cygnus) around pole star of Northern night sky. These circumpolar constellations never seem to set and they simply rotate around the pole star that basically supported concept of Heaven/God for people of ancient civilizations. It appeared for them as these circumpolar constellations was controlling the movement of all stars and planets around it In Hindu mythology, these circumpolar constellations are referred as Shisumara planetary system and other stars are also fixed on different sides of the Śhiśumāra planetary system according to the calculations of ancient Vedic astronomers. Even in current world and to concentrate their minds, Vedic sages worship the Śhiśumāra planetary system, which is technically known as the Kuṇḍalini-cakraAll these archaeological remains clearly show a proof that humans were aware of Astrology or Astronomy even 12000 years back that basically supported them to build culture, religion and deities based on constellations/cosmic formations in sky.
YouTube link on locating Vega using Stellarium

Ancient Vishnu Sahasranamam and commentary from Adi Shankara is very interesting which refers Dhruva(Pole star) at Shishumara's tail end. This was possible only when Pole star was Thuban( 2800 - 2400 BCE). Below is night sky of 2800 BCE visualized using Stellarium. Stellarium is a planetarium software that shows exactly what you see when you look up at the stars.

Reference link for SB 5.23.3: purport:

Dhruvaloka(Pole Star), the abode of Lord Viṣṇu within this universe, is situated 1,300,000 yojanas from the seven stars(Big Dipper). In the planetary system of Dhruvaloka are the planets of the fire-god(Agni), IndraPrajāpatiKaśyapa and Dharma, all of whom are very respectful to the great devotee Dhruva, who lives on the polestar. Like bulls yoked to a central pivot, all the planetary systems revolve around Dhruvaloka, impelled by eternal time. Those who worship the virāṭ-puruṣa, the universal form of the Lord, conceive of this entire rotating system of planets as an animal known as śhiśhumāra. This imaginary śhiśhumāra is another form of the Lord. The head of the śhiśhumāra form is downward, and its body appears like that of a coiled snake. On the end of its tail is Dhruvaloka, on the body of the tail are PrajāpatiAgniIndra and Dharma, and on the root of the tail are Dhātā and Vidhātā. On its waist are the seven great sages. The entire body of the śhiśhumāra faces toward its right and appears like a coil of stars. On the right side of this coil are the fourteen prominent stars from Abhijit to Punarvasu, and on the left side are the fourteen prominent stars from Puṣyā to Uttarāṣāḍhā. The stars known as Punarvasu and Puṣyā are on the right and left hips of the śhiśhumāra, and the stars known as Ārdrā and Aśleṣā are on the right and left feet of the śhiśhumāra. Other stars are also fixed on different sides of the Śhiśhumāra planetary system according to the calculations of Vedic astronomers. To concentrate their minds, yogīs worship the Śhiśhumāra planetary system, which is technically known as the kuṇḍalini-cakra. 

Refer this link for locating Saptarishis(7 Sages) using Stellarium :

Importance on Alignment of Temples in Cardinal directions

The basic idea of any ancient temples is a representation of the macrocosm (Geo-Centric view of the universe), and ancient temples are aligned in cardinal directions, in the directions of solstices and other solar events. As we have learnt now from previous explanation, Solstice Axis represents Heaven Gates towards Circumpolar location (Heaven), and Sun was represented as Soul of God/Divine spirit. The day of summer solstice or when the Sun is exactly over head is auspicious in every religion.

NOTE: Two photos above and below are edited for explaining Mandala concept using Iconography of original photos from below site for non-commercial purpose and they have Copyright from Mark Schumacher-

Aditi (Sanskrit: अदिति “limitless”) is mother of the gods (devamata) and all twelve zodiacal spirits from whose cosmic matrix, the heavenly bodies were born. She may be seen as a feminized form of Brahma and associated with the primal substance (mulaprakriti) in Vedanta. She is mentioned nearly 80 times in the Rigveda.
Aditi (Daughter of King Daksha) with sage Kashyapa(Son of Marichi) had 33 sons who are referred as Devas. Twelve are called Aditya including Surya that form 12 months of Hindu calendar.

As per Vedic astrology, the 12 Adityas(Sun Gods) are the energies of the Sun placed in various zodiac signs that forms 12 months of a year.

Sri Vidyashankara temple of Sringeri, India is one such beautiful example on Mandala concept with perfect cosmic plan like any other ancient Hindu temples or Pyramids of Egypt. This temple was built in the year 1338 A.D. As shown in picture below, in the eastern half of the structure is a mandala with twelve pillars (popularly known as rashi stambhas), marked by the twelve signs of the zodiac. The rays of the sun fall on each of them in the order of the twelve solar months similar to any Stonehenge or like World's First temple of Gobekli Tepe(current Turkey). Sringeri temple has a large circle in floor, marked with converging lines to indicate the direction of the shadows. Deities are placed in garbhagriha that rises with shikhara, Maha padma and Kalasha is placed in Top with alignment of Axis Mundi. 

Energies of Sun over Zodiac in respective astrological ages has also supported Avatar concept. As per Hindu mythology, whenever evil prevails, Lord Vishnu is said to descend in form of an avatar to restore cosmic order as per astrological ages(Yugas)More information of Avatars can be found @

In Greek myth, the Gate of Man corresponds with the crossing of the Milky Way and ecliptic at 5° Gemini/Taurus (sidereal zodiac) while the Gate of God corresponds with the crossing of the Milky Way and ecliptic in 5° Sagittarius/Capricorn(Makara).

Constellations like Gemini or Sagittarius are often depicted as Gate keepers or dwarapalakas and you can see them in every Hindu temples. Temples or Pyramids were constructed next to river representing Milky way(Cosmic River). Based on changes in earth's precession cycle, gate keepers or dwarapalakas used to change like Lion(Sphinx)Gemini etc.

Currently in Hinduism, it is during same period of Winter Solstice, the Vaishnava (Worshipers/Followers of Vishnu of Hinduism) celebrate Vaikuntha Ekadashi  and as per Vaishnava sect, they believe that ‘Vaikunta Dwaram’ or ‘the gate to the Lord's Inner Sanctum’ is opened on this day. The Shaiva sect observes the day as Trikoti Ekadashi.
For ancient Egyptians, the soul had to make the Negative Confessions in front of Osiris(Orion Constellation) who was God of Underground, Anubis(as Canis major) to qualify afterlife location(Heaven) and visible milky way(Cosmic River) or solstice axis was considered as path of souls.

In Hindu belief system, on south side of temple representing Southern Night Sky Cosmic plan, Lord Yama is represented from Orion constellation with his two dogs(Canis major and Minor on either side of Cosmic River). He was lord of Naraka(Underworld) and his vahana was Taurus(represented as Buffalo or Bull) and his duty was to direct the soul to a Swarga (heaven) or return it to Bhoomi (earth) based on human deeds(God or Bad Karma).If one’s soul were to rise to heaven after death to the Milky Way(path of soul) it had to pass through a gate(via constellations) and again we should note that the position of this gate(constellation) changes based on earth's axial precession.

In the Hindu calendar, two sidereal solstices are named Makara Sankranti which marks the start of Uttarayana and Karka Sankranti which marks the start of Dakshinayana. As per Hindu calendar(most of them emphasize the lunar cycle), Makara Sankranthi festival normally occurs during 14th January when zodiacal sign corresponds with Capricorn. Makara is the Capricorn zodiac. Sankranthi means change over, transit into. This day marks the Sun moving into Makara Constellation and is celebrated as Makara Sankranthi festival in India which is basically harvest festival. It is during this time, Sun God's birthday is celebrated and we find birth of Sun God at same time in almost every culture across the world based on Lunar or Solar calendar followed.

Sun God Ra was said to travel through the sky on the barge, providing light to the world. Each twelfth of his journey formed one of the twelve Egyptian hours of the day, each overseen by a protective deity. Sun God Ra travelling on Barque/Boat was considered by ancient Egyptians, since God had to cross the band of solstice axis/Milky way which was visualized as Cosmic river and as the Barque of Ra descended into the west in the evening, it entered the underworld (Night) where it had to fight with Apep(Chaos). Every time, Sun God RA won with support of rituals followed by people and rose successful in the morning.

Egyptians considered constellations as Gods/deities and developed associated mythologies. Each deity had his own barque and during Amun's annual festival, the barque of Amun's statue was carried from the Karnak temple downriver to the Luxor temple and later God was brought back again. If you watch out the rituals carefully, you will understand that cosmic night sky(Heavens above earth) is mimicked. We can see several such rituals still followed in several of ancient human religions like Hinduism and this is the reason, having temples near lake or river was mandatory in ancient times.

If rivers are not nearby, then Temple ponds or pushkarinis or kalyanis support as water reservoirs built as part of the temple complex near Hindu temples or ancient Egyptian temples. Temple ponds are sacred and they are also referred as tirtha. Tirtha also means passage

The Solstice axis or visible Milky Way(cosmic river) or Tirtha was identified as the Path of Souls that acted as cosmic river that flows all the way to Heaven near Circumpolar or afterlife location. 

Due to this, any river that is north flowing or changes the direction towards north or north-easterly direction becomes sacred or auspicious. It normally becomes a holy site and people make offerings for the souls of their ancestors. According to Hindu belief, the soul wanders after death until pindadan, or religious service seeking salvation for the dead from the cycle of rebirth, is performed. Pindadan is traditionally offered on the banks of holy river. It is mandatory for Hindu devotees offering pindadan to shave their heads and take a holy dip.

When cosmic sky is mimicked in temple plan, then localized river (Tirtha-sthal) act as path for souls to heaven. In Hinduism, when we burn a dead body, we always put the ashes in the Ganga or a nearby river which is associated with this cosmic cosmology.

We can find mention of this Cosmic river(Ritual water) in several ancient literature. Milky Way(Solstice Axis) of the sky is the heavenly Soma as per Vedic views. It is also the nectar of immortality and the drink of the Gods or Yajna. I believe people of Indus valley civilization too were masters of astronomy based on location cities which hosted this grand civilization. In several Indus valley seals, we can find these references of star mythology and 
offering to Gods referring the same solstice axis(Milky Way) that directs towards seat of God. As shown below, in front of the unicorn is a ritual offering stand

Vishnu Purana I.IV.9 specifically mentions Unicorn as Yajna Varaha(the Sacrificial Boar) - Yajna Purusha, the deity of the sacrifice.

During winter solstice, the sun rises to its lowest point in the northern hemisphere sky which symbolizes death and then after midwinter, the sun is reborn from the darkness, symbolizing rebirth, and the renewal of life. Many ancient civilizations, including the Sumerians, Egyptians, Indus Valley, Greeks, and Romans, made offerings to gods as a celebration of the sun’s return. We also have wild tales of slaughtered bulls, human sacrifice during this time of Solstice as offering to Sun God and it was believed that animal blood fertilized all vegetation and supported re-birth of red Sun God during Winter Solstice. Qhapaq hucha was the Inca practice of human sacrifice, mainly using children during event of famine.

Chawmos (Chitrimas from Cāturmāsyá) is a festival of the Kalash people of Pakistan during Winter Solstice (December 7-22). It involves much music, dancing, and the sacrifice of many goats to the god Balimain. Kalash people are Dardic Indo-Aryan indigenous people that follow religion that was close to ancient RigVedic tribes.

Sacrificial ceremonies continue even today in many cultures and religions based on these ancient star myths, however for economical purposes, the goats have replaced the bull or buffalo. In Hinduism, animal sacrifice is mostly associated with Vedic Śrauta rituals, Shaktism, and in currents of folk Hinduism strongly rooted in local popular or tribal traditions.


In later days, animal sacrifices were banned in several branches of Hinduism as religious reforms taken by several ancient Hindu sages and replaced with coconut with 3 dark spots (assumed to be like animal head). Coconut breaking ritual in Hinduism is a form of bloodless sacrifice.

In comparative mythology, other good example that I can find is usage of bells in Temples or Churches which has Egyptian origin, which was later taken in Judaism, Roman religions and finally in Christianity after priesthood of Egypt/knowledge of bells/gongs was adapted in Christianity.

As mentioned earlier, Ra was thought to travel with Sia on the solar barque every night to underground and as per ancient Egyptians, he had fight with Apep (Apep was the ancient Egyptian deity who embodied chaos and was thus the opponent of light). As a sign to protect and keep RA awake, ancient Egyptians started making various sounds and later ringing bells in temples to keep SUN God ‘RA’ awake just before he travels to night(Underground) and by doing this way, they were sure that RA would be awake and can easily win war over Apep every night and come back successfully in next day morning sky.

Similarly, Chariot festivals that happens in most of temples has clear parallels with rituals of ancient Egyptians. In the Hindu calendar, two sidereal solstices are named Makara Sankranti which marks the start of Uttarayana and Karka Sankranti which marks the start of Dakshinayana. As per Hindu calendar (most of them emphasize the lunar cycle), Makara Sankranthi festival normally occurs during 14th January when zodiacal sign corresponds with Capricorn. Makara is the Capricorn zodiac. Sankranthi means change over, transit into. This day marks the Sun moving into Makara Constellation and is celebrated as Makara Sankranthi festival in India which is basically harvest festival. It is during this time, Sun God's birthday is celebrated, and we find birth of Sun God at same time in almost every culture across the world based on Lunar or Solar calendar followed.
Ratha Saptami is celebrated in Hindu temples as Ravi or Surya Jayanti (the Sun-god’s birthday). Sun God Ravi or Surya turning his Ratha (Chariot) drawn by seven horses (representing seven colors) towards the northern hemisphere, in a north-easterly direction. Rath yatras are held at various temples to mark the movement of sun towards northern hemisphere.

Egyptologist Toby Wilkinson explained the naming as apt metaphor in Egyptian ideology. "Circumpolar stars are a very good metaphor for the afterlife because when viewed, they never seem to set: they simply rotate around the pole star. They are the undying stars, or in Egyptian terminology, the "Indestructibles", a perfect destination for the soul of the dead king".

Egyptian pyramids are precisely orientated to North pole star (Thuban during 2800 till 2000 BCE) and the Pyramids were constructed in a way that aligned with the sun’s rising at the exact point of Summer and Winter SolsticeMilky Way represented Nile River and it looks exact mimic of night sky. Deities of ancient Egyptian religion were constellations or as actual stars. This cosmology helped them to identify yearly flooding of the Nile coordinated with the summer solstice, carry out religious rituals associated with respective Gods(Constellations) and further supported them as crucial event for growing crops. Below is East - West view using Stellarium application that gives clear idea on reason behind construction of ancient Pyramids.

Lion gate ( 2800 BC) acted as star gate to Heaven(the afterlife).Circumpolar stars near Draco acted as “indestructible” stars which were a constant reminder of eternity for ancient Egyptians, the afterlife location.

Between 8000 BCE and 3000 BCE, the Sahara Desert had milder and moister climate. Climatologists identify this period as the “Green Sahara.” Similar logic is true for ancient Sumerian and Indus valley sites that had major water sources and later getting dry in areas like Mohenjo-Daro, an urban area of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization which led to people migration in search of newer water sources.

Periodic Drift in Tropic of Cancer/Capricorn due to axial precession and climatic changes for areas falling under Tropics

The Tropic of Cancer, which is also referred to as the Northern Tropic, is the most northerly circle of latitude on Earth at which the Sun can be directly overhead. This occurs on the June solstice, when the Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun to its maximum extent. It also reaches 90 degrees below the horizon at solar midnight on the December Solstice.

The Tropic of Cancer's position is not fixed, but constantly changes because of a slight wobble in the Earth's longitudinal alignment relative to the ecliptic, the plane in which the Earth orbits around the Sun. Earth's axial tilt varies over a 41,000-year period from 22.1 to 24.5 degrees, and as of 2000 is about 23.4 degrees, which will continue to remain valid for about a millennium. This wobble means that the Tropic of Cancer is currently drifting southward at a rate of almost half an arcsecond (0.468″) of latitude, or 15 m (49 ft), per year. The circle's position was at exactly 23° 27′N in 1917 and will be at 23° 26'N in 2045.

The main long-term cycle causes the axial tilt to fluctuate between about 22.1° and 24.5° with a period of 41,000 years. Currently, the average value of the tilt is decreasing by about 0.468″ per year. As a result (approximately, and on average), the Tropical Circles are drifting towards the equator (and the Polar Circles towards the poles) by 15 m per year, and the area of the Tropics is decreasing by 1,100 km2 (420 sq mi) per year.

The Celestial North Pole or CNP (i.e., the projection of the Earth's axis onto the northern sky) moves about 1° along this circle every 72 years (360x72 = 26,000) and with this we can also see drift of approximate in Tropic of cancer with approximate 1KM in 72 years.

Vega was the North Star 13,000 years (i.e., half a precession cycle) ago and will be again 13,000 years from now. Thuban was the North Star about 5,000 years ago and will be again in about 21,000 years from now. Earth's climate may be affected by this precession, a phenomenon known as Milankovitch cycles.

Constellations near North Pole Star and concept of God and Heaven mythology:

As mentioned below, Earth axis encounters a motion called precession which causes our axis to trace out an imaginary circle on the celestial sphere every 26,000 years. This is the same calculation which ancient Vedic astrologers referred as Yugas.
VārāhaMihira who was the most famous Indian astronomer from ancient times identified North Pole as the location of Holy Meru in his work Pancha-Siddhāntikā and same goes with the ancient Hindu astronomical text known as the Suryasiddhanta, locates Meru as the 'Navel of the Earth'.

Many famous Buddhist and as well as Hindu temples have been built as symbolic representations of this mountain and several myths have been associated with this holy mountain. If we refer Hindu Puranas in particular, it describes that Gods reside at north direction. In one of reference to Lord Brahma's day and night, it is mentioned that his one day is equivalent to one year for humans and this appears to be based on idea that north pole has six months of sunlight and six months of darkness, which makes it day and night for one year.

Further, in Hindu rituals, the symbol with arms pointing clockwise (卐) is called swastika. If you try to locate the ancient Ramayana verse on ‘Dhruvam sarve Pradakshinam’ it refers Dhruvam as the pole star and these seven sages(Saptarishis) (Big Dipper) offer PradakshinamThe word swastika is derived from the Sanskrit root swasti, which is composed of –

Su (सु) - good, well, auspicious
Asti (अस्ति) - to be or there is
Most of Hindu rituals in which devotees doing pradaskshina around God, pradaskhina in temples, holy hills, pradakshina around Agni God(Fire) during Hindu marriage rituals have been associated with this cosmology. We can find these circumpolar constellations such as Big Dipper(Swastica) and Draco in several ancient cultures as shown below:

Most of ancient scriptures describe Mount Meru/Lingam as the Central Pivot of the Universe and the entire cosmos revolves around it. 7 Sages(Big Dipper), Draco, the SunMoon and Stars paying obeisance while circumambulating the Holy Mountain Meru or around Shishumara Planetary system. 

In ancient Hindu tantric texts, it is believed that Shakti, the feminine aspect called Kundalini lives in Human body and this energetic force rests at the base of the spine in the sacrum. The Tantric practice of Kundalini yoga is about igniting this powerful cosmic energy to ascend through the chakras that live along the axis of the spine where conscious thought is born(The Moola) and finally unite with Shiva, pure consciousness. The same symbol is even depicted within Egyptians, Mayans, Sumerians, Greek and Roman several other mythologies. This symbolism also appears in Bible as Holy Spirit.

Reference Vibhuti Pada - The third chapter of Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras
ध्रुवे तद्गतिज्ञानम् ॥२८॥
dhruve tadgati-jñānam ॥28॥

Explanation : Meditating on the polestar(Dhruva) engenders knowledge (jnana) ||28||

Origin of worship around Peepal tree can be traced in Indus Valley and in Hinduism, Women circumambulate the peepal tree to be blessed with children or any desired wishes. The Skanda Purana also considers the peepal a symbol of Vishnu who is believed to have been born under this tree. Some believe that the tree houses the Trimurti, the roots being Brahma, the trunk Vishnu and the leaves Shiva. The gods are said to hold their councils under this tree and so it is associated with spiritual understanding. Bhagvad Gita particularly mentions them in more details and it's importance.

                  Vrukshaanaam ashwatthoham, 
                                  Ashwattah pujitoyatra pujita sarva devta; 

Among trees, I am the Ashwatha (the peepal tree); If one worships the Ashwatha, he gains the benefit of worshiping all gods at once) ~ Lord Krishna(Bhagvad Gita)

Reference :

     ऊर- ध्वमूलमधः शाखमश्वत्थ-  प्राहुरव्य- यम्‌ ।
           छन्दांसि यस्य पर्णानि यस्तं वेद स वेदवित्‌ ॥-15.1

TRANSLATION(Chapter 15.1):
The Blessed Lord said: There is a banyan tree which has its roots upward and its branches down and whose leaves are the Vedic hymns. One who knows this tree is the knower of the Vedas.

Apart from Hinduism, this Peepal tree is associated in almost every religion either as Tree of Life or Tree of Souls like the concept you might have seen in "Avatar"- Hollywood movie which are similar in lines of ancient Hindu philosophy as mentioned above. Understanding ancient Greek astronomy, the Milky way formation as shown below during solstice was visualized as path of Souls to Heaven. In Greek myth, the Gate of Man corresponds with the crossing of the Milky Way and ecliptic at 5° Gemini/Taurus (sidereal zodiac) while the Gate of God corresponds with the crossing of the Milky Way and ecliptic in 5° Sagittarius/Capricorn. More details are covered in Avatar concept below:
Below is representation of Bodhi tree in Buddhism as shown below with Draco symbolism. 
The concept of tree of life is a fundamental widespread archetype in many of the world's mythologies, religious and philosophical traditions. It is closely related to the concept of the sacred tree in center and constellations or sometimes Sun Gods that form 12 months of Zodiac performing circum-ambulation around sacred tree or God.

Pole star now is located at end of Ursa Minor as shown below.
Unlike Hindu cosmology, even Jain and Buddhist scriptures mention the Mount Meru model as shown above, but Dhruvaloka is particularly not mentioned. In Norse mythology, they talk about a World Tree that connects Heaven, Earth and Hell just like Meru. For Egyptians, Meru was something like Pyramid that supported God re-birth Myth as the Egyptians believed that the unmovable area the stars circled was heaven, the pyramids were built to align north with a single, perfectly aligned vent.

Greeks referred the location of union from earth to Heaven(circumpolar constellation) with structure of omphalos, “the navel” of the earth and they localized Omphalos(Stone of Delphi) as the central point from which terrestrial life originated in ancient Greek temples of Delphi and for Hinduism, it is referred as Linga(Union between Purusha and Prakrati)
Almost every religion has the same philosophical concept and the ideas looks exactly identical. Below image shows very close similarities like milk offering rituals to Axis mundi/mandala stone structure in ancient Greek and current Hindu religion.
Reference : Axis mundi - Wikipedia
The five central towers of Angkor Wat symbolize the peaks of Mount Meru, which according to Hindu mythology is the dwelling place of the gods. The famous Brihadeeswara Temple of Tamil Nadu is referred as “Dakshina Meru” - the Meru Mountain of the South. Every Hindu temple is built on a cosmic plan and the roof tower crowning the shrine refers to Kalasha (The Purna-Kalasha is considered a symbol of abundance and "source of life" in the Vedas) and temple Shikara represents Meru which reaches the ground and extends into the heavens pointing towards the world axis. 
Ancient Avestan scriptures refers Hara mountains(Alborz) as Sumeru near south coast of Caspian Sea. The name Alborz is derived from Harā Barazaitī, a legendary mountain in the Avesta, the main text of Zoroastrianism.

It is Mt Meru in Jainism and Buddhism. 'Su' means good in Sanskrit and thus the name Mount Sumeru. Vedic tribes have localized this mountain and associated cosmogony in whichever place they migrate. Some researchers identify Mount Meru or Sumeru with the Pamirs, northern part of Afghanistan.As per current local Hindu cosmogony, SUMERU PARBAT(6351m) is present Kedārnāth mountain in the Garhwal district of Uttaranchal, India and below is Shiva Lingam alignment to Holy Sumeru. Constructing Shiva temples along the Madhyamrekha have mythological significance. Ancient Purnanas explains the  significance and origin of Lingam along this Meridian(

Below are most ancient Shiva temples in India that are perfectly aligned in straight line - 79° Meridian East
  • ·       Kedarnath - 79.066900° E
  • ·       Kalpeshwar - 79.449108° E
  • ·       Rudranath -   79.318445° E
  • ·       Madhya Maheshwar - 79.221632° E
  • ·       Baijnath Dham - 79.615734° E
  • ·       Kaleshwaram, Telangana - 79.904528° E
  • ·       Mallikarjun Jyotirling, AP - 78.868031° E
  • ·       Kalahasti, AP - 79.698279° E
  • ·       Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu - 79.696243° E
  • ·       Thiruvannamalai, Tamil Nadu - 79.066688° E
  • ·       Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu - 79.693521° E
  • ·       Thiruvanakoil, Tamil Nadu  - 78.705673° E
  • ·       Rameshwaram, Tamil Nadu - 79.317787° E

In similar way, you can locate most of ancient Sun temples in Tropic of Cancer (ancient Karkrekha) like Sun temples of Orissa, Ujjain, Egypt(Abu Simbel), Ankor Wat till Mexico with Polaris as Pole star.All these ancient structures are perfectly aligned to North Star and these locations supported in birth of several religions. The day of Sun Solstice when the Sun is exactly over head in Tropic of Cancer is auspicious in every religion. Vedic astronomers have used ancient Sun Dial to locate Pole star something like shown below and you find them in Ved Shala in Ujjain, India.
The upper planes of the two walls on the sides of the steps in the middle of the instrument are parallel to the axis of the earth. In the direction of the planes the pole star is visible which primarily helped them to align ancient religious structures to perfect North Star(Heaven). Normally these measurements were done during Akshaya Tritiya when Sun is exactly overhead which will help to get accurate measurement of right angle to locate the North Star.

The Ancient Babylonians knew about a form of trigonometry and they discovered their own unique form of trigonometry during the Old Babylonian period (1900-1600BCE), more than 1,500 years earlier than the Greek form. These calculations were used to find the distance of stars, construction of perfectly star aligned ziggurats and pyramids. 
The Surya Siddhanta is a ancient Indian text on astronomy and time keeping, an idea that appears much earlier as the field of Jyotisha (Vedanga) of the Vedic period. The text is known for some of earliest known discussion of sexagesimal fractions and trigonometric functions. Parallax angle was used to measure distance. It uses sine (jya)cosine (kojya or “perpendicular sine”) and inverse sine (otkram jya) and also contains the earliest use of the tangent and secant when discussing the shadow cast by a mid day sun with Vedic Sundial.

yojana (Sanskrit: योजन) is a measure of distance that was used in ancient India. A yojana is about 8 miles in Surya Siddhanta

Hindu Mythology and logic behind Hindu Calendar:
Egyptian calendar is a wonderful example of the mythology of Ancient Egypt.The ancient Egyptian calendar was a solar calendar with a 365-day year and consisted of three seasons of 120 days each. Mythology of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia and Indus Valley civilizations have influenced in development of several cultures and religions as of today. It is very clear that the origin of mythology in almost all civilizations and cultures that we know as of today started with Star myths and you will find Heaven near North Pole star in almost every religion/cultures as of today. Get a complete list of all mythologies @ and get comparison with method used @ You can easily locate the similarities in mythologies of every culture and religions as of today and it is all same and originated from same source of ideas.

-     Similar to mythological stories of ancient Egyptians, Sumerians and also as we see in different cultures like ancient Greeks, Persians etc. The Vernal equinox, Solstices and star constellations in Hindu Astrology supported in creation of several mythological stories and also rituals associated with it. Most of God's in Hindu mythology are associated with stars and corresponding constellations. Vedic astrology got developed based on celestial movement of stars and planets in night sky and so as mythological stories based on these constellations and Planets. With mythology, rituals got developed and below is reference for Hindu Calendar : 

As per Hindu mythology, Hiraṇyagarbha (Sanskrit: हिरण्यगर्भः ; literally the 'Cosmic womb' or 'golden egg/Womb' is the source of the creation of universe or the manifested cosmos. The Upanishad calls it the Soul of the Universe or Brahman.  Hiraṇyagarbha is the term used in the Vedanta for the "creator". Hiraṇyagarbha is also Brahmā and is known as Svayambhu (self-born). Ten Prajapatis, who are believed to be the fathers of the human race were also sons of Brahma. A list of ten includes Marichi, Angiras, Atri, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, VasishthaDaksha, Bhrigu and Narada.

Below image is representation of complete Hindu Mythology Family Tree :
In ancient Indian astronomy, the constellation of the Big Dipper (Ursa Major) is called saptarishi, with the seven stars representing seven rishis, namely "Vashistha", "Marichi", "Pulastya", "Pulaha", "Atri", "Angiras" and "Kratu"
NOTE : Due to Earth's precession cycle, location of Pole star(Dhruva) appears to have changed from earlier Puranic reference from tail of Shishumara(Draco) to tail of Ursa Minor(Current Polaris).
Reference : Viṣhṇu Purāṇa, Part 2, Chapter 9
The basis and support of this constellation of Śhiśhumāra is Mahā Viṣhṇu, who is the support of all light and effulgence. Dhruva, son of Uttānapāda came to be installed at the tail-end of Śhiśhumāra as he had worshiped ViṣhṇuŚhiśhumāra is dependent upon Viṣhṇu, the Lord of all, and Dhruva is dependent upon ŚhiśhumāraSūrya is dependent on Dhruva

Reference :

Tārāmaya; the eternal deity; Uttānapāda is the upper jaw, Yajña is the lower lip, Dharma is the head, heart is NārāyaṇaSādhya and Aśvins front feet, Varuṇa and Aryama is the hind feet, the samvatsara, child; Mitra is Apāna; tail is AgniMahendraMarīci and Kaśyapa and Dhruva; all the planets are centered in Dhruva.
Even AtharvaVeda Parishishta also indicates that North Pole star was in the Draco (Shishumara) constellation as mentioned above.

To check accuracy of Vishnu Purana, I tried Stellarium application and moved the night sky date back to 2800 BCE and I was perfectly able to locate Thuban at end of 14 star Draco constellation(Shishumara). Thuban was Pole star during 3000 - 2500 BCE.

Below is the Symbolism of the Kundalini serpent - Ahira-Budhnaya and Channel to Root
Ahira-Budhnaya is also called Ohi-bridna or Uro-boros. He is the king of the Nagas. Originating in ancient Egyptian iconography, the ouroboros entered Western tradition via Greek magical tradition and was adopted as a symbol in Gnosticism and Hermeticism and most notably in alchemy. Ahir Budhnya, the benefic serpent of the depths of the Atmosphere, symbolizes fertility, kundalini energy, and need for seclusion that is experienced in this nakshatra.
This Symbolism of the Kundalini serpent(Channel to Moola - The Root) is present in every ancient mythology. 

Mostly represented with Cygnus/Cassiopeia constellations near  Northern Pole Star as Mother Goddess or God with Serpent symbolism as Channel to Pole star

NOTE : Sikha was worn by ancient Egyptians, Hittites, Persians and now Buddhist and Hindu priessignifies one-pointed (ekanta) focus on a spiritual goal to Sahasrara or Heaven Point(devotion to God).
If you understand cosmology of ancient scriptures, we find that heavens in ancient mythologies along with deities in almost all religions/civilizations are associated with constellations in Northern Sky and some visible stars like Lepus, Taurus from Southern sky which were visible for civilization in Northern Hemisphere. Heavens in almost all religions lie near North Star(Saptarishi Mandala). This gives understanding that most of ancient Vedas and Puranas was primarily developed by civilization in Northern Hemisphere. Arctic Home in the Vedas is a very nice read which has beautifully covered Vedic Astronomy.
However, we have story in Hindu mythology about Sage Vishwamitra supporting in creation of a parallel heaven in a portion of the southern sky near South Pole during a fight with Lord Indra when Vishwamitra's disciple Trishanku was not allowed by Indra in Heaven(Indra Loka) located near North Pole. Trishanku corresponds to the collection of three crosses around Crux, also known as the Southern Cross.Canopus is named after the great seer Agastya.

In ancient Hindu epic Ramayana, Maharishi Valmiki has also referred to Trishanku and it mentions that Sage Vishvamitra has replicated Southerly Ursa Major in southerly direction and still remaining amidst of sages that highly reputed sage Vishvamitra further started to replicate the stars sequentially, resorting to the southern hemisphere, as he is convulsed in anger at Indra.

For the fact, ancient puranas were composed was primarily based on looking Northern Hemisphere skies and we can never locate Southern Cross/Trishanku from ancients towns of Northern Hemisphere. Trishanku heaven is visible only from extreme southern parts of India and similarly Sapta Rishi(Big Dipper) pradakshina and North Pole star cannot be seen by people living in Southern Hemisphere. Then how did Maharishi Valmiki in Ramayana, composers of Bhagavatha Purana and other sacred scriptures mention Trishanku and the star system near South Pole. It is debatable and some people mention that these stories of Trishanku got added later in Hindu mythology. 

Modern science answers this mystery and we get the truth to this topic when we try to stimulate ancient sky to 4000 years back by using few astronomical stimulation tools like Stellarium, we find out that Trishanku was visible for people from Northern Hemisphere during the time when Puranas or Vedas was composed and as the earth's precession is getting changed, it is only in the last 1000 years that these stars in Southern sky is not been visible. Now the constellation of Trishanku lies at the exact cardinal South which was not the case in Southern sky during 3000-2000 BCE.
Coming back to constellations of Northern sky, Atharvaveda Parishishtha also mentions Brahmarishi as a circumpolar constellation. Cygnus constellation was referred to as Brahmarishi in Atharvaveda Parishishta. If you note above, Galactic center of Milky Way is location of Cygnus constellation that acts as vahana for Lord Brahma. Brahma's consort Goddess Saraswathi is associated with the Lyra (Veena) in her hands. Practicing veena(musical instrument) in Indian school of arts during Brahma Muhurtham comes under the influence of Cygnus constellation.
It appears that ancient Sages might have precisely practiced the Big Dipper movement in form of Yoga as shown below.

Chandra(Moon God) is synonymous to Soma. Other names include Indu ("bright drop"), Atrisuta ("son of Atri"), Sachin ("marked by hare"), Tārādhipa ("lord of stars") and Nishakara ("the night maker").

In Hindu mythology, Chandra(Moon God) met Tara, the wife of Brihaspati (planet Jupiter) and abducted her. From their union, Tara became pregnant, giving birth to Budha (planet Mercury). Brihaspati, being upset, declared a war but the Devas intervened and Tara was returned to Brihaspati. Budha's son was Pururavas who established the Chandravanshi Dynasty as shown in Hindu mythology chart above under Atri.
Chandra(Moon God) later pursued Daksha's 27 daughters who are 27 Nakshatras in night sky and these are the 27 divisions of the zodiac based on the moon's daily motion of 13 degrees and 20 minutes.  27 daughters of Daksha(Creator God) who got married to Moon God form 27 days of a month. According to the Puranas, Daksha (Creator God -Prajapati) had several daughters from his wife Prasuti and ViraniDaksha and his wife Virani had 62 daughters. 10 of those daughters were married to Dharma, 13 to sage Kashyapa (like Aditi, Diti etc), 27 to Chandra(Moon God), 4 to Arishtanemi, 1 to Kama, 1 to lord Shiva, 2 to sons of sage Bhrigu, 2 to sage Angiras, 2 to Krisasva and according to Vishnu Purana and Padma Purana, Daksha and his wife Prasuti had 24 daughters. The names of these 24 daughters are :Sradda,Srilakshmi(Prosperity), Dhriti (Steadiness), Thushti (Resignation),Pushti (Thriving), Medha (Intelligence), Kriya (Action,devotion), Buddhika (Intellect),Lajja (Modesty), Vapu(Body),Santi (Expiation), Siddhika (Perfection), Kirtti (Fame), Khyati (Celebrity), Sati (Truth), Sambhuti (Fitness),Smriti (Memory),Priti (Affection),Kshama(Forgiveness),Sannati (Humility),Anasuya,Urjja (Energy),Swaha (Offering),nd Swadha (Oblation).

Divine mother Goddess is an aspect of Goddess Saraswati, Goddess Lakshmi and Goddess Parvati, all three in one form, a form of Adi Shakti, as she is the human form of the Gayatri writings of the Vedas, hence called Gayatri meaning 'Gaya' to sing and 'tri' referring to the three Goddess, is the source of Brahma's power.The Gāyatrī Mantra is also known as the Sāvitrī mantra, is a highly revered mantra from the Rig Veda and dedicated to praise the glory of the universe creator
oṃ bhūr bhuvaḥ svaḥ
bhargo devasyadhīmahi
dhiyo yo naḥ prachodayāt
– Rigveda 3.62.1
Gayathri Mantra : We meditate on the glory of that Being who has produced this universe; may He enlighten our minds.

Sage Kashyapa is the father of all the Asuras and Devas that gave birth to all star constellations and planets with wife Diti  and Aditi. In Vedic astrology, some planets and star constellations are considered “good” and some “bad” that form Devas and Asuras.

Kaśyapa alternatively kacchapa, means "turtle" in Sanskrit. This constellation is Casyapi (Kasyapi, similar to Cassiopeia or Kassiopeia). 
A rich section of the Milky Way runs through Cassiopeia, stretching from Perseus towards CygnusAccording to Michael Witzel, it is related to Avestan kasiiapa, Sogdian kyšph, New Persian kašaf, kaš(a)p which mean "tortoise". The Kassites (/ˈkæsaɪts/) were also people of the ancient middle east Asia, who controlled Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire c. 1531 BC and until c. 1155 BC (short chronology). The endonym of the Kassites was probably Galzu, although they have also been referred to by the names Kaššu, Kassi, Kasi or Kashi. Similar to Mitanni dynastyKassi dynasty deities closely resemble deities of ancient Vedic civilization

Kurma (Sanskritकूर्मKūrma, 'turtle', 'tortoise'), also known as 'KurmaRaja' ('Tortoise King') is an avatar of the RigVedic god Vishnu. Originating in Vedic literature such as the YajurVeda as being synonymous with the Saptarishi called Kasyapa, Kurma is most commonly associated in post-Vedic literature such as the Puranas with the legend of the churning of the Ocean of Milk, referred to as the Samudra manthan

As per Hindu mythology during Samudra mantan(churning the Ocean of Milk for elixir of immortality)Lord Hari(Vishnu Avatar) decided to mix up a the elixir of immortality with Gods on one side and Demons on other side. The gods were to drink the elixir to become immortal, however, the gods needed help from the demons to stir up the oceans to produce the elixir. As per this mythological story and during churning oceans, Hari took charge of distributing the freshly made soma to the gods but while it was being passed out the demons started battling with the gods for a taste of the elixir and in the confusion one of the demons, Rahu, disguised himself as a god and drank some of the elixir. When Hari(Vishnu Avatar) noticed this, he sliced off Rahu's head with a sword, however elixir had already passed Rahu's throat and made him immortal. Demon Rahu is enemy of Sun and Moon and the head Rahu chases the Sun and Moon across the sky and tries to eat them causing eclipse.  
The place where the path of the Moon crosses the ecliptic moving northward is called the ascending node(becomes Rahu) and the place where the path of the Moon crosses the ecliptic moving south is called the descending node(becomes Ketu). Thus the Moon crosses the ecliptic at the ascending node, roughly 14 days later crosses the ecliptic again at the descending node, and roughly 14 days later it is back to the ascending node crossing. 

Origin of Kumbha Mela Festival:

Kumbha is a Sanskrit word for pitcher and is also referred to as the kalasha. Kumbh as also a zodiac sign for Aquarius in Indian astrology. Mela means a gathering or a meet or simply a fair.
According to ancient mythology and during Samudra Manthan, the 4 locations(Haridwar, Prayag, Trimbakeshwar and Ujjain) were the places where the 4 drops of immortal nectar(Amrit) spilled or fell in the rivers from the pot Kumbh when Jayanta(Son of Indra) kept on running for 12 days to avoid Amrit kalasha to fall in the hands of demons. Finally, the nectar pot was saved from the demons by God Brihaspati(Jupiter Planet) with the help of Sun.
As per divine counting one day of Gods is equal to the one year of mortal beings considering Axis Mundi(Top of Meru) in north Pole where Gods reside and we have 6 months day and 6 months night in Arctic that equals 1 day and 1 night for Gods.

The Jupiter carrying Amrit takes 12 years to transit, to go through all of the 12 zodiac signs. Therefore, the main Maha Kumbh Mela happens after 12 years x 12 = 144 years. However, the normal Kumbh Mela happens every 3 years in any one of the 4 locations. Ardha Kumbh Mela happens in Haridwar or Prayag every 6 years, Purna Kumbh Mela happens every 12 years, and the Maha Kumbh Mela happens every 144 years as per above calculation.
  • When Jupiter enters in Aquarius and Sun and Moon in Aries and Sagittarius respectively ,Kumbh is held at Haridwar.
  • When the Jupiter is in Taurus and the Sun and Moon are in Capricorn or Makra, the kumbha is held at Prayag.
  • When the Jupiter enters in Leo and the Sun and Moon in Cancer, the Kumbha is held at Nashik and Trimbakeshwar.
  • When Jupiter is in Leo and the Sun and Moon in Aries, the Kumbha is held at Ujjain.
The seekers believe that bathing in these rivers is a means to prāyaścitta (atonement, penance) for past mistakes, and that it cleanses them of their sins. The festival of Kumbha Mela is one of the largest peaceful gatherings in the world and considered as the "world's largest congregation of religious pilgrims”

Coming back to deities, Chhaya is the Hindu personification or goddess of shadow, and the consort of Surya(Sun God). She is the shadow-image or reflection of Saranyu (Sangya), the first wife of Surya. Chhaya was born from the shadow of Saranyu and replaced Saranyu in her house, after the latter temporarily left unable to bear Surya's fierce splendour.
Chhaya is usually described as the mother of Shani, the god of the planet Saturn.
Saranyu and her sister Chhaya(Shadow Goddess) are the wives of Lord Surya(Sun god). Children of Surya(Sun God) by Saranyu are Yama/Yamini/Ashwins and Manu ( Creator of Mankind). If we study PIE mythology - Proto-Indo-European mythology - Wikipedia and look at Vedic Ashvins, the Lithuanian Ašvieniai and almost all other Vedic Deities of Hinduism, we can see a Proto-Indo-European origin.

NOTE : Haéusōs has been reconstructed as the Proto-Indo-European goddess of the dawn and Twenty-one hymns in the Rigveda are dedicated to the dawn goddess Uṣás ( Ushas).

If you note, Rig Vedic verse "Daksha sprang from Aditi and Aditi from Daksha" is a reference to "the eternal cyclic re-birth of the same divine Essence". Aditi was attributed the status of first deity by the Vedic culture and she gave birth to Daksha and in re-birth, she is again daughter of Daksha married to Sage Kashyappa.

Aditi (Daughter of King Daksha) with sage Kashyapa(Son of Marichi) had 33 sons who are referred as Devas. Twelve are called Aditya including Surya that form 12 months of Hindu calendar, eleven are called Rudras and eight are called VasusAditi (Sanskrit: अदिति "limitless") is mother of the gods (devamata) and all twelve zodiacal spirits from whose cosmic matrix, the heavenly bodies were born. She may be seen as a feminized form of Brahma and associated with the primal substance (mulaprakriti) in Vedanta. She is mentioned nearly 80 times in the Rigveda.

Diti (Other Daughter of King Daksha) with the sage Kashyapa gave birth to the Daityas (Sanskrit: दैत्य). These are a clan or race of Asura . They are referred as Danavas. Below are notable Daityas or race of AsurasAsuras were evil and as per Hindu mythology, whenever evil prevails, Lord Vishnu is said to descend in form of an avatar to restore cosmic order. More information of Avatars can be found @

Star Wars between Devas and Asuras :Shukra(Venus Planet) is the name of a son of Sage Bhrigu(one of the Saptarishis(Big Dipper constellation)). He was the guru of Daityas / Asuras, and is also referred to as Shukracharya or Asuracharya in various Hindu texts. When Shukra was young, Shukra(Venus Planet) and Brihaspati(Jupiter Planet) studied under the same guru, Sage Angirasa, who was Brihaspati's father. Shukra was known to be more knowledgeable than Brihaspati, but he was disturbed by Angirasa's favoritism for his son Brihaspati

During this period Brihaspati(Jupiter) became the Guru of the Devas. Due to the hatred Sukracarya(Venus) became the Guru of Asuras. He helped them achieve victory over the Devas and used his knowledge to revive the dead and wounded among them. The planets Mercury and Saturn are considered friendly to Shukra, the Sun, the Moon and Jupiter are hostile, and the rest are considered neutral. Lunar nodes like Rahu and Ketu are also referred as bad planets(Asuras). 

As per Vedic astrology, the 12 Adityas(Sun Gods) are the energies of the Sun placed in various zodiac signs that forms 12 months of a year.
The Age of Aries commenced around 2000 B.C and it was during this time the Ram became sacred to Amon, the solar deity of Egypt and same goes with Hindu calendars too. If you notice Hindu rituals, Mesha Sankranti (also called Mesha Sankramana or Hindu New Year) refers to the first day of the solar cycle year, that is the solar New Year in the Hindu luni-solar calendarMesha Sankranti falls on 13 April usually, sometimes 14 April. This day is the basis for major Hindu, Sikh and Buddhist festivals, of which Vaisakhi and Vesak are the most well known.
In the Egyptian book of the Underworld called Amduat there are twelve divisions indicating the zones of the zodiac through which the soul, as sun, must journey on its way back to its sacred seat. Sun God with RAM head (Aries) is shown travelling in a boatVedic Astrology and energies of Adityas(The Sun GOD) that forms 12 months of a year starts from Aries(Mesha) and below is reference of Rig Veda.
Dhatar, the great Creator, then formed in due order Sun and Moon.
He formed in order Heaven and Earth, the regions of the air, and light.”
 Rig Veda
Ancient Egyptian deities have almost complete similarities in terms of stories, usage of lotus, vahanas with that of Hindu Deities based on star constellations. Daksha with RAM head(Aries) is creator God in Hindu mythology and his counter part in Egypt is the creator god Khnum(shown with RAM head as below). 

Star Myths have influenced development of religions and also human writing system. Just check the evolution of Letter A from Taurus(Sacred Bull)

Heaven in Ancient Cosmology:
In Hindu scriptures, the 7 lokas above earth are referred to as Bhu: Bhuva: Suva: Maha: Jana: Thapa: and Satya Loka. Each door opens to next level loka/gate and  after passing through the 7th door, you reach Satya Loka or the Brahman or Lord Vishnu and all religions refer GOD at same Satya loka location - Moola (the root). Largest functioning Hindu temple - Sri Rangam temple of South India which has been mimicked as Vaikunta(Lord Vishnu's abode) on earth has seven enclosure walls that gives same representation of planetary system and Vaikuntha Sagar is represented as milky way. Same way, we have seven hills, seven ocean concept to reach God.
Reference :

Seven heaven/Gates concept could possibly be seven ancient planetary systems above earth till milky way rift. This is the reason why we organize our lives around a 7-day week and this is based on these identified ancient seven planets above our heads.  This 7-day structure has also supported in popular creation myths of Greeks, Hinduism, Book of Genesis etc.  The seven celestial bodies visible to the naked eye during ancient times were Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus and Saturn.
The earliest idea of "egg-shaped cosmos" comes from some of the Sanskrit scriptures. The Sanskrit term for it is Brahmanda(ब्रह्माण्ड) which is derived from two words - 'Brahma (ब्रह्मा) the creator god in Hinduism and 'anda' (अण्ड) meaning 'egg'. - World egg - Wikipedia
Purusha Suktam(Sanskrit with meaning) - RigVeda 10.90

तस्माद्विराळजायत विराजो अधि पूरुषः ।
स जातो अत्यरिच्यत पश्चाद्भूमिमथो पुरः ॥५॥

Tasmaad-Viraadda-Jaayata Viraajo Adhi Puurussah |
Sa Jaato Atya[i-A]ricyata Pashcaad-Bhuumim-Atho Purah ||5||

English Translation: From Him (Sacrificial Fire),was born the Virat; (the Virat came into being) from the presence of the Shining Purusha (Who remained as the background or substratum of Virat);
He (i.e. the Virat) created the Earth, by manifesting Her from His own being as substratum.

यत्पुरुषेण हविषा देवा यज्ञमतन्वत ।
वसन्तो अस्यासीदाज्यं ग्रीष्म इध्मः शरद्धविः ॥६॥

Yat-Purussenna Havissaa Devaa Yajnyam-Atanvata |
Vasanto Asya-Asiida-Ajyam Griissma Idhmah Sharad-[d]Havih ||6||

English Translation:With the Purusha as the (Sacrificial) Fire, the Deva (the Shining One, referring to Virat) continued the Yagya (Sacrifice of creation),
Spring was (created as) the clarified Butter (of that Yagya), Summer was (created as) the Fuel (of that Yagya), and Autumn was (created as) the Havis (Sacrificial offering of that Yagya).The First Divine Men were created as the Holy Water sprinkled with the Kusa Grass in that Yagya (Sacrifice of Creation).
The First Divine Men were the Sadhya Devas and the Rishis, Who were created by Him, the Deva (the Shining One, referring to Virat), Who performed the Yagya. (These Rishis were not human but divine Rishis like Saptarshis created directly by Virat).

तं यज्ञं बर्हिषि प्रौक्षन्पुरुषं जातमग्रतः ।
तेन देवा अयजन्त साध्या ऋषयश्च ये ॥७॥

Tam Yajnyam Barhissi Pra-Ukssan-Purussam Jaatam-Agratah |
Tena Devaa Ayajanta Saadhyaa Rssayash-Ca Ye ||7||

English Translation: The First Divine Men were created as the Holy Water sprinkled with the Kusa Grass in that Yagya (Sacrifice of Creation).
The First Divine Men were the Sadhya Devas and the Rishis, Who were created by Him, the Deva (the Shining One, referring to Virat), Who performed the Yagya. (These Rishis were not human but divine Rishis like Saptarshis created directly by Virat).

तस्माद्यज्ञात्सर्वहुतः सम्भृतं पृषदाज्यम् ।
पशून्ताँश्चक्रे वायव्यानारण्यान् ग्राम्याश्च ये ॥८॥

Tasmaad-Yajnyaat-Sarvahutah Sambhrtam Prssadaajyam |
Pashuun-Taashcakre Vaayavyaan-Aarannyaan Graamyaash-Ca Ye ||8||

English Translation: From the Complete Offering of His (i.e. Virat's) Yagya (Sacrifice of Creation) was obtained Ghee mixed with coagulated Milk,which (i.e. the Ghee and Milk) are (the created) Animals, both of Air (Birds) and of Forests (Wild Animals) and Villages (Domestic Animals).From the Complete Offering of His (i.e. Virat's) Yagya (Sacrifice of Creation) was born the Rigveda and Sama Veda,
The Chandas (Vedic Meters) were born from Him, and the Yajurveda was born from Him.

'तस्माद्यज्ञात्सर्वहुत ऋचः सामानि जज्ञिरे ।
छन्दांसि जज्ञिरे तस्माद्यजुस्तस्मादजायत ॥९॥

Tasmaad-Yajnyaat-Sarvahuta Rcah Saamaani Jajnyire |
Chandaamsi Jajnyire Tasmaad-Yajus-Tasmaad-Ajaayata ||9||

English Translation:From the Complete Offering of His (i.e. Virat's) Yagya (Sacrifice of Creation) was born the Rigveda and Sama Veda, the Chandas (Vedic Meters) were born from Him, and the Yajurveda was born from Him.

तस्मादश्वा अजायन्त ये के चोभयादतः ।
गावोः ह जज्ञिरे तस्मात् तस्माज्जाता अजावयः ॥१०॥

Tasmaad-Ashvaa Ajaayanta Ye Ke Co[a-U]bhayaadatah |
Gaavoh Ha Jajnyire Tasmaat Tasmaaj-Jaataa Ajaa-Vayah ||10||

English Translation:From Him (i.e. Virat) was born the Horses, and all those animals who has teeth in both (jaws): From Him (i.e. Virat) was born the Cows, and from Him was born all types of Goats.

Similar to Virat Purusha as mentioned above, the Vedas and other ancient scriptures describe the “Kala Purusha” the “Divine cosmic being” as personification of time, being the 12 zodiac representation of his different body parts. Further, the association of body parts with zodiac signs also remained relatively consistent from ancient era till today. The Zodiac Man or Kala Purusha appeared most frequently in calendars, devotional books and treatises on philosophy, astrology and medicine in the Medieval era. Below are presentation of Kala Purusha and Vastu PurushaVastu Shastra gives the directive principles regarding construction of buildings so as not to displease the Vastu Purusha. We can find these parallels in almost all religions and faith.

Mythology of Vastu Purusha : As per ancient Puranas, during Vedic period there lived a demon called Andhakasura. Lord Shiva was requested to fight with demon to protect the world and while fighting with the demon, the Lord Shiva was very much tired and began to sweat profusely. When the sweat fell down on the earth, a child was born of the drops of Shiva's sweat.The child looked very cruel and horrifying and consumed all the blood from the body of the demon Andhakasura. His hunger was still not satisfied and felt very hungry. He began to grow steadily, eating all that came near his mouth. He occupied almost all the surface of the earth, killing all the inhabitants and destroying the nature. All the Five Elements of the galaxy namely Earth, Water, Fire, Air & Sky suffered by the growth of this child and could not carry on their functions.
This terrified even the Gods in heaven. All of the Gods in heaven grouped together planned to kill the child that was grown up so largely. They attacked it from all sides, laid it face down and they then sat on different parts of its body and pressed it inside the earth. Being bound like that, the child lay submerged (buried).

In order to mollify the child the Gods bestowed the child with a boon that that he will be known as 'VASTUPURUSHA'. Since then the worship of Vastu-Purusha has been in practice and it has become compulsory to follow certain rules so as to make the Vasthu Purush happy and comfort. Soma/Homa is normally done during house warming ceremony as gesture to offer Soma to Vastu PurushaHomam or havan is the offering of different types of poojas to various deities for fulfillment of wishes by welcoming the power of Agni, The Fire of God. Gruhapravesam puja pleases the Vastu deity overall.

Astrological allegories

Many ancient religions are based on an astrological allegories, that is, allegories of the movement of the Sun and the Moon as seen from the Earth. Examples include the cult of Horus/Isis. There are twelve astrological ages corresponding to the twelve zodiacal signs in western astrology. Advocates believe that when one cycle of the twelve astrological ages is completed, another cycle of twelve ages begins. The length of one cycle of twelve ages is 25,860 years. Astrologers use many ways to divide the Great Year into twelve astrological ages. There are two popular methods. One method is to divide the Great Year into twelve astrological ages of approximately equal lengths of around 2156 years per age based on the vernal equinox moving through the sidereal zodiac. Another method is to significantly vary the duration of each astrological age based on the passage of the vernal equinox measured against the actual zodiacal constellations. Each of those twelve sections of the Great Year can be called either an astrological age or  Precessional Age.

In Age of Aries, the ram became a symbol for several deities in ancient past ( 2000BCE till 100BCE). Below is RA-AMUN (God with RAM head) - Ra transit in Aries
Below is scene at Abu Simbel which depicts Ramses II fighting with ten-armed Hittite(Hatti) or often depicted as ten headed Hittite king at battle of KadeshEgyptians and Hittites entered into peace treaty in 1269 BCE

Hittite kings are often referred as Labarnas ( I, II, II so on). Labarna was also a title of early Hittite rulers.

Ram-ses II was most powerful Egyptian Pharaoh of all times. The Indian Prabhu (Sanskrit "ruler, master, lord"), is equivalent to the Egyptian Paraa or "Pharaoh."   
In Age of Aries, even Moses is shown with RAM head

During Age of Taurus(4500BCE till 2000BCE), Bull worship was common in many cultures . Below is Moses destroying Golden Calf that can be marking End of Taurus age and beginning of “Age of Aries”

In similar way during end of Age of Aries, the Ram - the lamb of God was sacrificed to bring in the new order for Age of Pisces.
Jesus Christ incarnation symbolizes the movement of the Sun God into Age of Pisces(100 BCE till 2700 AD)

The age of Pisces began around 100 BCE and will end c. 2700 AD
. With the story of the birth of Christ coinciding with this date, many Christian symbols for Christ use the astrological symbol for Pisces. Jesus bears many of the temperaments and personality traits of a Pisces, and is thus considered an archetype of the Piscean. Moreover, the twelve apostles were called the "fishers of men," early Christians called themselves "little fishes," and a code word for Jesus was the Greek word for fish, "Ikhthus". With this, the start of the age, or the "Great Month of Pisces" is regarded as the beginning of the Christian religion.

Coming back to Age of Aries(2000BCE till 100BC) and in Hindu mythology, Lord Ram is supposed to have taken birth in Age of Aries as mentioned in Mahabharata 348.19 and also in Valmiki Ramayan below:
Sandho tu samanupraptre tretayaam dwaparisya cha |Ramo daasrathirbhutva bhavishami jagatpati  ||  (Mahabharata 348.19)
Explanation tretayaam dwaparisya cha means timeline of Lord Ram's birth is between Age of Taurus(Treta Yuga) and Age of Aries(Dwaparayuga) and same is captured in Vedic calendar(Refer Vedic calendar in this blog). 
Valmiki Ramayana mentioning birth of Lord Ram when the Sun was in Aries

When Sun was in Mesha (Aries) Bhagavan Sri Jagannaath (the Supreme Lord of Universe was born; then sweet-scented flowers rained profusely for one muhurtha (duration of 12 minutes) from the sky on the castle where Sri Rama was born !! (Valmiki Ramayana)
Almost all ancient mythologies and great epics are based on these ancient astrological allegories considering geo-centric model. Indian Scholar R. Shamasastry explains an astrological basis for the story of Ramayana. Rudrapatna Shamasastry FRAS (1868–1944) was a Sanskrit scholar and librarian at the Oriental Research Institute Mysore. As librarian, Shamasastry examined these fragile manuscripts daily to determine and catalogue their contents. He re-discovered and published the Arthashastra, an ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, economic policy, and military strategy.

Ramayana simply means journey of Rama and according to R. Shamasastry, Lord Rama represents the sun and his brother Lakshmana represent the Jupiter Planet, Bharata the Venus, and Satrughna the Planet Mercury. When Sun is in Orion, he gives example of Rama's pursuit after a deer implies the sun's march to the asterism Mṛgaśira (Taurus) indicating the time of the urge of Sita the Ploughshare. He further explains the fight between Vali and Sugriva as a Grahayuddha (fight between Planets personified as humans). He mentions Vali as Saturn and we can see this iconography of Vali with gold chain round his neck.

In almost all ancient mythologies, river is an allegory to the Milky way(Solstice Axis), referred as Akash Ganga/Cosmic River which passes near constellation of Scorpius and mythology of bending the “Bow of Shiva” is an allegory for the Taurus constellation (Bull) in which Orion is referred as Rama and Taurus as Bow. We find almost similar parallels in Greek mythology too.
As per Joydeep Sen from his book - Astronomy in India(1784-1876), when the vernal equinox was in Orion, that constellation along with the Milky Way and Canis represented the boundary between Devaloka(heaven) and Yamaloka(Hell). So, the river separating heaven and hell was the Milky Way, while the dogs at the gates of hell were Canis Major and Canis Minor.
Scorpio constellation sometimes act as multiheaded demon who normally gets killed by Sun God during this part of transit and later followed by victorious celebration rituals.
The Egyptians revered hamadryas baboons as the embodiment of Tehuti, a god of wisdom, and also connected the primates with Amun-Ra, the great Sun god. The Greeks related Tehuti to their God Hermes due to his similar attributes and functions. In Hindu Mythology, Maruti or Hanuman is God of Wisdom who has iconography similar to Baboon(Monkey). Even in later iconography of Hindu belief system, Lord Hanuman is present in war chariots driven by Lords.

Thoth/Tehuti of ancient Egyptians was originally a Moon god and always found with Sun RA who provided light at night for Sun God RA's voyage. He was thus said to be the secretary and counselor of the sun god Ra, and with Ma'at (truth/order) stood next to Ra on the nightly voyage across the sky.

In Babylonian myths, he was known as Nebo (Nebu) who was the son of Marduk. Iconography of Marduk is like Vedic Maruts (Immortals) - AMARA in Sanskrit means “deathless” or “immortal.” Names like Hārūt and Mārūt also appears in Quran (2:102) which sounds like Haurvatat and Ameretāt of Zoroastrian scriptures. Haurvatat and Ameretāt are archangels in Amesha Spenta. Etymologically, Avestan Haurvatat derives from an Indo-Iranian root and is linguistically related to Vedic Sanskrit Sarvatāt "intactness, perfection" and Ameretat in Sanskrit is Amaratva (immortal/deathless). Hindu God Maruti is Chiranjeevi(deathless).

However, the Greek Hermes God was associated with Mercury Planet. In Babylonian myths, he was known as Nebo (Nebu) who was the son of Marduk. Iconography of Marduk is similar to Vedic Maruts.

The Monkey king/God - Sun Wukong as shown in above picture of Chinese myths have similar attributes of Greek Hermes(e-ma-ha-on) and Hindu God Hanuman. From Chinese literary characters, Monkey King has immense strength, and is able to support the weight of two celestial mountains on his shoulders. From attributes of Mercury planet, Sun Wukong is extremely fast, able to travel 54,000 km, 34,000 mi in one somersault and these features are also similar to Hindu God Hanuman. 
Epics of Ramayana and Mahabharata of Hindu Mythology is similar to epics of Illiad and Odysseus of Greek Mythology. It is almost same.


Below is one such quick comparison:

In Ramayana, Ravana abducts Sita who was wife of Lord Ram. Lord Ram accompanied with Laxmana along with Hanuman attacks Lanka and the city of Lanka gets burned. In Iliad, it is Paris who abducts Helen who was wife of a king. Achilles is accompanied by Patrcoculus and Troy(City) is attacked and burnt. In both cases, the war ended by overthrowing bad king(Paris or Ravana) with Sita or Helen returning home. If you note, both of these wars are fought on sea shore. In Ramayana, Lakshmana is injured badly and almost dies till rescued by Hanuman and same goes with Iliad in which Patroculus is injured badly to death.

Similarly, we learn the Twelve Labours of Heracles which are a series of episodes concerning a penance carried out by Heracles, the greatest of the Greek heroes, whose name was later romanised as Hercules. The episodes were later connected by a continuous narrative. We have almost similar parallels in Mahabharata episode/narrative with reference to Lord Hari-Krishna.

In similar lines, Lyman E Stowe (Book: 1907) explains the story of Jesus as an astrological allegory for the sun passing through the zodiac each year.

With Meru or Geo-centric model with Heaven near North star as referred by almost every ancient civilization, astrology counts 1 divine day as 1 human year. 
During winter solstice, the sun rises to its lowest point in the norther hemisphere sky and stands still for three days which symbolizes death and then after midwinter, the sun is reborn from the darkness, symbolizing rebirth, and the renewal of life. 

Below is comparison provided by Stowe with reference to the Bible:
Considering energy of Sun as Jesus, Sun God is re-born every year during Winter Solstice in the stable between the constellations of the horse and goat (Sagittarius and Capricornus)
• Thirty years after Jesus Christ birth, he was baptized. If you note the above star map, thirty days after the Sun is born, he enters the Zodiac sign Aquarius, the water bearer which shows the symbol of Baptism.
NOTE : In astrology with geo-centric model, 1 divine day is 1 Human year.
After Baptism, he took his disciples from fishermen. Check the star map and you find that it is during this time, Sun enters the sign Pisces and story goes on as it transits remaining constellations/Zodiac.
Christ later is referred as Good shepherd and star map here points Sun in Aries during this time.
• Next cycle in star map is time of Vernal Equinox and time of salvation, we can find Christ went out to the salvation of men.
• Next cycle is of Taurus (bull) refers time of vegetation and then Sun God moves to Gemini (Twins). When Sun enters the sign of Cancer, we see it is symbolized as crab and when Sun enters Leo, Christ here became the lion of the twelve tribes of Judah. Next ritual would be sup to the vestal virgin and this is when we have Sun in Zodiac sign Virgo.
Judgement day as referred in Bible happens when Sun is in Libra Zodiac which is basically symbolized by the balance in almost every ancient civilization.

• Finally, Sun God is crucified between the two heavenly thieves which are Scorpio and Sagittarius. It is time of winter solstice, the sun rises to its lowest point in the norther hemisphere sky and stands still for three days which symbolizes death and then after midwinter, the sun is reborn from the darkness, symbolizing rebirth and the renewal of life.
Distinctive pattern of constellations along with zodiac path( Sun Transit) along with planets doing circumpolar movements around pole star have supported in development of mythological stories as per astrological ages and you can find several such similar examples in Greek and Roman mythologies.

Orion is a prominent constellation located on the celestial equator and visible throughout the world. Ancient civilizations including Egyptians, Sumerians, Indus valley, Persians, Greeks, Romans etc. paid tribute to the gods formed by Orion constellation and started constructing monuments/temples by placing them in specific locations on Earth mimicking the sky. Few of them started referring respective civilization/culture as Orion/Aryan race.

The Lullubi or Lulubi were a group of tribes during the 3rd millennium BC, from a region known as Lulubum, now the Sharazor plain of the Zagros Mountains of modern Iraqi Kurdistan. We can see several victory steles commemorating the victory of the Kings and associated with iconography of Orion standing over dwarf (Lepus constellation). Below is one such example:

According to BG Tilak in his Arctic Origins of VedasRigvedic hyms were composed in the 'Orion Period' when the vernal equinox was almost on the right shoulder of 'Orion". Sacred thread/cloth worn by few communities of India represents stars alignment in Orion Belt. In fact, Greek word Orion is derived from "Aryan" which is often referred as Aryan race.  Below is chronology of the post-glacial period as given by BG Tilak
  • 10,000 to 8000 BC – The destruction of the original Arctic home by the last Ice Age and the commencement of the post-Glacial period.
  • 8000 to 5000 BC – The age of migration from the original home. The survivors of the Aryan race roamed over the northern parts of Europe and Asia in search of lands suitable for new settlements. B G Tilak calls it the Pre-Orion Period.
  • 5000 to 3000 BC. - The Orion period, when the vernal equinox was in Orion
  • 3000 to 1400 BC – The Krittika period, when the Vernal equinox was in Pleiades.
  • 1400 to 500 BC – The Pre-Buddhistic period, when the Sutras and the Philosophical systems made their appearance.

For Hindus, Yajnopavita which is referred as sacred was born with Daksha Prajapati and this 'girdle' is the Orion’s belt in Orion constellation. Coming to thread wearing, it is also common to Zoroastrianism of ancient Persia(Aryan Homeland), Greeks and several others.

Dr. B R Ambedkar(Father of Indian Constitution) has done very in-depth analysis of Vedas and has very beautifully explained these myths and associated creation of races(Varnas) in his book - Who Were the Shudras? - Wikipedia
Soft copy can be found from Indian Government(MEA) Website :

B.G Tilak has covered astronomy of ancient past very well and below book can be referred for detailed analysis on Orion/Aryan Race.
Among stars, Sirius is the brightest star system in the night sky. Star Sirius(night Sun) along with Orion and Taurus constellation forms as Mrgavyadha "deer hunter" and this constellation(Orion)  represents Rudra (Shiva) as per RigVeda. This Story of Shiva as Mrgavyadha is found in the 65th chapter of Brahmanda Purana

Visualizing Milky Way as path of souls to Circumpolar location, deities
 formed by Orion constellation was only
 god powerful enough to remove Taurus, the bull, from the path of soul reaching heaven during winter solstice. In India, bull fighting ritual or sport happens during Makara Sankranthi and this kind of ritual or sport is found in almost every cultures of world with similar mythological stories available from Epic of Gilgamesh, mythological stories of ancient God Mithra.For Sumerianswhich refers Epic of GilgameshBull of Heaven - Gugalanna was sent by the gods to take retribution upon Gilgamesh.Gilgamesh and his companion Enkidu fight with bull of heaven. It most of ancient beliefs including Mithra religion, religion of ancient Egyptians, Sumerians, it was believed that blood of cosmic bull fertilized all vegetation and animals. Hence Mithra’s slaying of the bull became the ritualistic prototype of fertility in Mithraic cult and most of later religious belief system. Sacrificial ceremonies continues even today in many cultures and religions based on these Orion and Taurus star myths, however for economical purposes, the goats have replaced the bull or buffalo.

Below is Sumerian Icon Gilgamesh(Orion) fighting with Taurus(Bull of Heaven).
SUN GOD worship prevailed in ancient Europe during solstice, Mithraism of Romans was practiced before Christianity. Mithra is also a judicial figure, an all-seeing Protector of Truth referred by ancient Persians. ( Mithra is also Sun GOD in RigVeda of Hinduism)

In Mithraism, it was the worship of Mithra, the Iranian god of the sun, justice, contract and war in pre-Zoroastrian Iran. Known as Mithras in the Roman Empire during the 2nd and 3rd centuries CE, this deity was honored as the patron of loyalty to the emperor. 

Orion is Cosmic Dancer and this formation of Orion happens during Winter Solstice(Dec-Jan), Arudra Darshan is celebrated and Shiva is represented as Nataraj. In some of south Indian states, it is celebrated as Birthday of Lord Shiva. In ancient Egypt, same day was celebrated as resurrection of Osiris(representing Orion Constellation). Several ancient cultures like SumeriansPersiansGreeksRomans including Christianity have birthday or resurrection of God during same day of Winter Solstice. This takes place on the full moon night in the Tamil month of Margazhi(December–January) and this is also the longest night in a year.

Comparative Mythologies: 

Comparative mythology is done by scholars and have used the relationships between different myths to trace the development of religions and cultures, to propose common origins for myths from different cultures, and to support various psychological theories -

Below are Egyptian priests performing hymns, prayers, ringing bells to deities. You can find a very clear parallels on current deities worship in Hindu belief system like Prāṇa pratiṣṭhā ritual.

Pharaoh's were considered as Gods on earth and later associated with constellation of deities. When the pharaoh came to the throne he was instantly associated with Horus - the god who had defeated the forces of chaos and restored order - and when he died, he was associated with Osiris, the god of the dead. The chief responsibility of the pharaoh was to maintain ma'at ( Dharma) throughout the land.

The ancient Egyptians believed that in order for a Pharaoh's soul to survive in the afterlife it would need to have food and water. The opening of the mouth ritual was thus performed on Pharaoh's who were equated as Gods on earth.

We see similar parallels in Hindu belief systemOpening of the divine eye ceremony during Prāṇa pratiṣṭhā ritual with hymns/prayers, ringing bells and spraying of scented water and flowers has very close parallel to ancient Egyptian rituals. The idol of God(the murti) in Hindu temples may be retired at sunset just like a guest retiring to bed, and then woken up at sunrise with pleasantries, washing, offering of fresh clothes, food and interaction with the devotees.

Mis pi ritual in ancient Mesopotamia is quite similar. 
Mythologies of early Sumerians, Assyrians, Persians, Romans, Greeks, Slavs are almost similar like Hindu mythology. There is considerable interest in study of ancient flood  related to these 7 sages and shocking is, this tale appears in almost all the belief system that we know with maximum similarities. There is a great flood in the epic of Gilgamesh of Sumerians and we find similar tale of Matsya-avatar(Matsya Puranas) in Hindu belief system that happened almost same time during creation of these epics. Greeks have similar story about the Great Flood referring Zeus and to finally add, tale about great flood is also present in Bible ansed Quran as Noah and his ark.
Flood myth or deluge myth is a narrative in most of belief system in which a great flood, usually sent by a deity or deities, destroys civilization, often in an act of divine retribution
The first King/ancestral figure in Hindu mythology is Manu (Creator of Man Kind) who saved 7 sages from Great Flood. It is almost similar to Egyptian ancestry too. First King/Pharaoh of Egyptian dynasty is Menes/Manu around (3200–3000 BC)( Reference : Menes - Wikipedia). All the below ancestral figure are associated with Great Flood myth ( Matsya Avatar in Hindu Mythology). 
Menes (Manu) was praised the first law giver of Egypt by the Greek Historian Diodorous Siculus and same goes with Hindu Mythology too in which Manu is first law giver( Refer - Manusmriti - Wikipedia)

  • Manu/Mannus, ancestral figure in Germanic mythology ( Reference : Mannus - Wikipediaand also refer ( Tuisto - Wikipedia) - Tuisto, Tvastar
  • Minos, king of Crete, son of Zeus and Europa
  •  Manu (Hinduism), Progenitor of humanity
  • Nu'u, Hawaiian mythological character who built an ark and escaped a Great Flood
  • Nüwa, goddess in Chinese mythology best known for creating mankind
  • Noah, ancestral figure in all Abrahamic religions mentioned in Genesis flood narrative (Noah's Ark - Wikipedia)                      Reference : List of flood myths - Wikipedia
Cygne constellation can be identified as swan. In Hindu mythology we have Goddess Saraswati in Swan along with musical instrument(Lyre constellation).Goddess Saraswati represents goddess for music and wisdom in Hindu myth.
Creation myth appears almost similar in several ancient civilizations. As shown below. RA(Egyptian) or Brahma(Hindu mythology) would be SUN God, Water God would be NU(Egyptian) or Vish-NU(Hindu mythology) and Sirius star could represent Saraswati/Aditi/Lakshmi or mother goddess. If we closely look, Egyptian creation myth based on cosmological formations in night sky is almost similar like what we know from Hindu creation myth. It is very clear that ideas are same. As per Hindu Mythology, creation started from nothing. Vishnu, was reclining on the Serpent and Serpent(Sesha) is floating on water. Lotus sprouted forth from Vishnu's navel created God sitting on the lotus who was Brahma. Brahma opened his eyes, created mankind.If you closely look at Dendera Temple of Egypt, we have almost similar representation here as shown below.

Other closest similarity would be with Nut of ancient Egyptian with Kamadhenu(Cosmic Cow) of Hindu mythologyNut (Ancient Egyptian: Nwt) was the goddess of the sky in Egyptian myth. She was seen as a star-covered woman arching over the earth. Nut is also depicted in the form of a cosmic cow whose great body formed the sky and heavens similarly like Kamadhenu(cosmic cow) in Hindu mythology where all deities reside in cosmos. This makes cow as sacred animal for Hindus, ancient Persians and ancient Egyptians. 

Indra( King of Gods) in Hindu Mythology can be compared to Asshur ( King of Gods) in Assyrians mythology. Sumerians reference can be found @

Lord Yama in Sanskrit can also be interpreted to mean "twin" that has Indo-European parallel.                  
Yamah and the related Sanskrit Yama are interpreted as "the twin," perhaps reflecting an Indo-Iranian belief in a primordial Yama and Yami pair.We can locate parallels between Avestan Yima and Sanskrit Yama, for instance, Yima was the son of Vivaŋhat, who in turn corresponds to the Vedic Vivasvat, "he who shines out", a divinity of the Sun. Both Yamas in Iranian and Indian myth guard Hell with the help of two four-eyed dogs ( Canis Major and Canis minor constellations).

In Norse mythologyYmir was the primordial being, a giant(ORION constellation) and together with Ymir a primeval cow Auðumbla(TAURUS constellation) was born and her milk fed Ymir. The Giant Ymir then created the first male and female from the pits of his arms. Their names were Ask and Embla, the Nordic equivalent of Adam and Eve or Yama and Yami pair in Hindu Mythology (corresponds to Gemini Constellation)

Example : The name Jamshid is originally a compound of two parts, Jam and shid, corresponding to the Avestan names Yima and Xšaēta, derived from the proto-Iranian *Yamah XšaitahXšaitah meant "bright, shining" or "radiant". Sumerians referred Yama as Namtar. In Chineese mythology, he is called as Yan. Japan, he is called Enma. In Korea, Yan is known as Yeomna. In Norse mythology, he is known as Yimir.

Greek god Ouranos (Uranus in Latin) is equivalent of Vedic God Varuna and both share same mythology. He is the most prominent Asura in the Rigveda, and lord of the heavens and the earth which is same as Ouranos of Greeks. 

All these ancient Indo-European myths are common and have clear parallels with myths of Orion constellation. “Buffalo” of Yama is Taurus and his two dogs are Canis Minor and Canis Major constellations. The river separating hell and heaven was Milky way. 

Logic behind creation of 30 days in a month.
NOTE : I have covered detailed mythology of Nakshatras @

The ancient Vedic civilization concept of the month was based on lunar cycle which was approximately 28 days based on 28 Nakshatras (28th nakshatra was Abhijit) as shown in below chart. The earliest ancient Roman calendars also had months that were 28 or 29 days. Julius Caesar modified the Roman calendar in 46 B.C. to make each month have either 30 or 31 days to sync with Solar cycle in 12 Zodiac, since the lunar cycle is approximately 29.5 days, which does not divide evenly into the 365.25 days that make up a year. The current Gregorian calendar was a modification of the Julian calendar.

In Hindu mythology, 27 daughters of Daksha(Creator God) are 27 Nakshatras and these 27 sisters had one brother and that brother is Abhijit Nakshatra of sky. 27 daughters of Daksha(Creator God) who got married to Moon God form 27 days of a month. Nakshatras are the 27 divisions of the zodiac based on the moon's daily motion of 13 degrees and 20 minutes. The Moon travels the zodiac in 27.3 days spending roughly one day in each Nakshatra.

Moon God(Chandra) spends 1 day with each wife in a month that is equal to lunar mansion. As per ancient myth, Moon God initially was interested in marrying Rohini (Rohini Nakshatra) only. He had reluctantly married to other 26 Nakshatras on Daksha’s request. Realizing this, Chandra spends more time with Rohini and neglects the other 26 wives. This upsets the wives, and they complained to Daksha. Daksha got furious and cursed Chandra that he will slowly lose his splendor and perish which is nothing but waning of Moon. The Moon having this curse tried to please Lord Shiva. Lord Shiva could not reverse Daksha's curse. However he softened the curse for Moon. From Shiva's blessings the Moon now increases in size for 15 days and then begins decreasing in size that are waxing and waning of Moon.

Logic behind seven days in a week:

Navagrahas are nine heavenly bodies (as well as deities) that influence human life on Earth in Hinduism and Hindu astrology. The term is derived from Nava (Sanskrit: नव "nine") and Grahas (Sanskrit: ग्रह "planet, seizing, laying hold of, holding".

Navagrahas in Hindu temples are devoted to Navagrahas—the nine (Nava) major celestial bodies (Grahas) of Hindu astronomy. These temples are made of stones and are very beautiful. These celestial bodies are named Surya (Sun), Chandra (Moon), Mangala (Mars), Budha (Mercury), Brihaspati (Jupiter), Shukra (Venus), Shani (Saturn), Rahu (North Lunar Node) and Ketu (South Lunar Node). Many temples in South India contain a shrine dedicated to the Navagrahas. 

Out of those nine planets, seven are named after the planets in the Solar System and the other two (Rahu and Ketu) are actually demons in Hindu mythology.

If you observe Vedic calendar, you can find that ancient people believed that each hour of the day was governed by one of the deities associated with the celestial bodies. Hindu texts used the lunar cycle for setting months and days, but the solar cycle to set the complete year. As per Hindu astrology Rahu and Ketu have an orbital cycle of 18 years and are always 180 degrees from each other orbital. If you remove these two lunar nodes ( Rahu and Ketu), you can arrive at 7 days week as represented below:

Order of weekdays was done with speed at which these planets crossed the sky 
and concluded that the fastest object must have the shortest distance to the Earth, while the slowest object was believed to be farthest away. These details are captured in Surya Siddhanta.

Origins- Dharma/Dhamma/Rta/Ma'at

Dharma is a key concept with multiple meanings in Indian religions, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism and others. In Hinduism, dharma is one of the four components of the Puruṣārtha, the aims of life, and signifies behaviours that are considered to be in accord with Ṛta

Ṛta (/ˈrɪtə/; Sanskrit ऋत ṛta "order, rule; truth") is the principle of natural order which regulates and coordinates the operation of the universe and everything within it. In the hymns of the Vedas, Ṛta is described as that which is ultimately responsible for the proper functioning of the natural, moral and sacrificial orders. Conceptually, it is closely allied to the injunctions and ordinances thought to uphold it, collectively referred to as Dharma, and the action of the individual in relation to those ordinances, referred to as Karma – two terms which eventually eclipsed Ṛta in importance as signifying natural, religious and moral order in later Hinduism.

Ṛta has been compared to similar ideas in other cultures, such as Ma'at (Cosmic Order) in Ancient Egyptian religion, Moira and the Logos in Greek paganism, and the Tao. The word dharma has roots in the Sanskrit dhr-, which means "to hold" or to support Rta(Law/Cosmic Order) or Ma'at. In Classical Sanskrit, and in the Vedic Sanskrit of the Atharvaveda, the stem is thematic: dhárma- (Devanāgarī: धर्म). In Prakrit and Pāli, it is rendered dhamma

Circumpolar stars near Draco, Big Dipper( 7 Sages) acted as “indestructible” stars which were a constant reminder of eternity for ancient Egyptians, the afterlife locationThese circumpolar constellations never seem to set and they simply rotate around the pole star that basically supported concept of Heaven/God for people of ancient civilizations. It appeared for them as these circumpolar constellations was controlling the movement of all stars(constellations as celestial deities) and planets around it in perfect Cosmic OrderIn Hindu mythology, these circumpolar constellations are referred as Shisumara planetary system and other stars are also fixed on different sides of the Śhiśumāra planetary system according to the calculations of ancient Vedic astronomers. Even in current world and to concentrate their minds, Vedic sages worship the Śhiśumāra planetary system, which is technically known as the Kuṇḍalini-cakra.

Egyptian pyramids are precisely orientated to North pole star (Thuban during 2800 till 2000 BCE) and the Pyramids were constructed in a way that aligned with the sun’s rising at the exact point of Summer and Winter Solstice and we see similar logic in ancient Hindu temples. The Solstice axis or visible Milky Way(cosmic river) was considered as extension of river Nile and was identified as the Path of Souls that acted as cosmic river that flows all the way to Heaven near Circumpolar location. When cosmic sky is mimicked, then localized river act as path for souls to heaven. In Hinduism, when we burn a dead body, we always put the ashes in the Ganga or a nearby river which is associated with this cosmology. Deities of ancient Egyptian religion were constellations or as actual stars like  any ancient mythology.

Feather being light in weight, it was ancient symbol to show emptiness(free from sin, lust, desires, misdeeds etc.) and represented as the symbol of truth, law, order and justice in several ancient civilization including Egyptians.

In ancient hieroglyphics(before the origin of formal human writing), the best way to represent this emptiness was symbol of feather since it does not have any weight and for Egyptians, this symbol showcased soul that is free from sin, lust, desires etc. and was placed on various deities of ancient Egypt and several civilizations took this representation later that you can refer. You can also find deities with feather on crown even in Mayan, Sumerian cultures too.

Below is one such comparison with Egyptian deity and Lord Krishna.

Sanatana Philosophy
(referred as Hindu Philosophy) can be regarded as completely reformed as of today with changes and reforms brought by several scholars from past till date. However when we speak of culture or rituals followed by Hindus(Indians), it is mix of several traditions and the practice of rituals, Idol worship that are almost 11000 years old that includes cultures of Indus valley civilization(primary culture)Proto-Indo-Europeans, Sumerians, ancient Egyptians, ancient Persians and several others. Ancient rituals that have been followed from several generations got included with several waves of people migration here into Indian culture. It is this great culture that has digested any kind of cultural invasion and regarded them as its own. It accepted everything and rejected none. This is the power of Indian culture and greatness of India.

India is a place where you will still find beautiful mixture of all major races of world who arrived here in times. This is a country with mixed race and humans might have settled in India due to multiple waves of migrations. The first migrants came with the Southern Coastal dispersal, ca. 60,000 years ago, thereafter complex migrations within south and southeast Asia took place with people of Australoid Race. Then the migration of Mediterranean race, later Indo-European and finally Mongoloid Race(Tibet-Burmese) speaking people in North eastern parts of India.
This is one place in the world where you can locate almost all the oldest surviving ancient religion/cultures of the world living together peacefully. Hindu religious scriptures date back up to 6,000 years and as a known fact, India has never invaded any country in its past 10,000 years of history and the people associated with ancient civilizations across the world who came here along with their cultural past due to persecution or ill-treatment in their native were adapted and protected here in this great land just because of "Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam", the entire world is a family is what our philosophy teaches if you are a Hindu. "Sarve Bhavantu Sukhinah", may all living beings live happily, in peace, may good happen to all, may all prosper and live their lives to their fullest potential is what Hindus still follow.  Unity in Diversity is India's strength. India is a land of “Unity in diversity”. “Unity in diversity” is based on the concept where the individual or social differences in physical attributes, skin color, castes, creed, cultural and religious practices, etc. are not looked upon as a conflict. Rather, these differences are looked upon as varieties that enrich the society and the nation as a whole. Unity in diversity is a very important principle because we all live in a diverse world and it is crucial to respect each other and to support each other no matter what our culture, background, gender, orientation or other differences may be.

Indians are purely mixed race. Below is chart showing ancestry distribution between Indus Valley people, Steppe and Hunter Gatherers among various Indian groups. Following the decline of Indus Valley, people from this population mixed with groups primarily descended from southern Asian hunter-gatherers to form one of the two main sources of South Asian variation, the “Ancestral South Indians” (ASI) whose direct descendants live today in southern India. Around 4000-3500 years ago, people from this same population mixed with descendants of Steppe pastoralists who spread via Central Asia to form the “Ancestral North Indians".

Sanatana Dharma has several roots and among them it includes primary polytheistic culture followed by the people of ancient Indus Valley civilization and then followed by introduction of Vedic culture by Aryans or Indo-Iranians. The Indus Valley religion was polytheistic and there are many seals to support the evidence of the Indus Valley Gods like Pashupati(Proto Hindu God Shiva), Mother Goddess symbolizing fertility etc. As captured in this blog, some seals depict a tree which the Indus Valley believed as the tree of life. Origin of worship around Peepal tree in Hindu religion can be traced in Indus Valley and in Hinduism, women circumambulate the peepal tree to be blessed with children or any desired wishes.

Image Credit: Avantiputra7 (Wikipedia)

The Indus River Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization extended from modern day northeast Afghanistan till northwest India(Punjab Region including Gujarat) and this ancient civilization contributed several important innovations such as new techniques in metallurgy, standardized weights, measures and several others. This civilization hosted one of largest ancient city and one of the world’s earliest major urban centers. In the paper published on September 5, 2019 in the prestigious journal ‘Cell’, the authors Prof. Vasant Shinde, Vagheesh M. Narasimhan, Nadin Rohland, Nick Patterson, Niraj Rai, David Reich and others mention details of ancient genome from the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC). It mentions that the individual they sequenced fits as a mixture of people related to ancient Iranians (the largest component) and Southeast Asian hunter-gatherers, a unique profile that matches ancient DNA from 11 genetic outliers from sites in Iran and Turkmenistan in cultural communication with the IVC. These individuals had little if any Steppe pastoralist-derived ancestry, showing that it was not ubiquitous in northwest South Asia during the IVC as it is today. The Iranian-related ancestry in the IVC derives from a lineage leading to early Iranian farmers, herders, and hunter-gatherers before their ancestors separated, contradicting the hypothesis that the shared ancestry between early Iranians and South Asians reflects a large-scale spread of western Iranian farmers east. Instead, sampled ancient genomes from the Iranian plateau and IVC descend from different groups of hunter-gatherers who began farming without being connected by substantial movement of people.

In similar way, a genetic analysis of the ancient DNA of Mesopotamian skeletons was made on the excavated remains of four individuals from ancient tombs in Tell Ashara (ancient Terqa) and Tell Masaikh (near Terqa, also known as ancient Kar-Assurnasirpal), both in the middle Euphrates valley in the east of modern Syria. The two oldest skeletons were dated to 2,650-2,450 BCE and 2,200-1,900 BCE respectively, while the two younger skeletons were dated to circa 500 AD.All the studied individuals carried mtDNA haplotypes corresponding to the M4b1, M49 and/or M61 haplogroups, which are believed to have arisen in the area of the Indian subcontinent during the Upper Paleolithic, and are absent in people living today in Syria. These haplogroups are still present in people inhabiting today's Tibet, Himalayas (Ladakh), India and Pakistan, and are restricted today to the South, East and Southeast Asia regions.

For reference, sounds of ancient Sumerian and Indus valley town mentioned by Mesopotamians is like any Dravidian language (Kannada or Tamil).

As we all know Indus valley civilization ended due to climate change and people migration around 1800 BCE. The Harappan people moved south and mixed with the local people to produce what geneticists call Ancestral South Indians with a culture based on Dravidian languages and around the same time, the Harappans also mixed with Steppe pastoralists who had by then migrated to north India through Central Asia, to form the Ancestral North Indian (ANI) population who primarily spoke Indo-Aryan languages. Farming related migration also occurred when migrants from the Chinese heartland swamped south-east Asia and reached India, bringing the Austroasiatic family of languages
Proto-Elamite scripts are close to Indus valley writing. Indus Valley writings might have gradually replaced by early Brahmi Script from which almost all South Asian scripts are evolved and below are few reverse engineering techniques used to decipher both Indus valley writing and Linear Elamite scripts using Brahmi.

The original Sumerian script was adapted for the writing of the Semitic Akkadian (Assyrian/Babylonian), Eblaite and Amorite languages, the language isolates Elamite, Hattic, Hurrian and Urartian, as well as Indo-European languages Hittite and Luwian later. Cuneiform writing was gradually replaced by the Phoenician alphabet during the Neo-Assyrian Empire

In similar way, Indus Valley writings might have gradually replaced by early Brahmi Script from which almost all South Asian scripts are evolved. Below are few reverse engineering techniques used to decipher both Indus valley writing and Linear Elamite scripts using Brahmi and Kharosthi Script.

I believe Proto-Kharosthi script of Kandahar/Gandhara region was evolved from earlier Linear Elamite script. For the fact, the Helmand culture of western Afghanistan was a Bronze Age culture of the 3rd millennium BCE. Scholars link it with the Shahr-i SokhtaMundigak, and Bampur sites.

Helmand civilization flourished between 3200 and 2350 BCE and may have coincided with first phase of the great flourishing Indus Valley Civilization. The Jiroft culture flourished in the eastern Iran, and the Helmand culture in western Afghanistan at the same time. In fact, they may represent the same cultural area and hence the Jiroft and Helmand cultures are closely related and single culture. The Mehrgarh culture, on the other hand, flourished far earlier.

In Ancient Greece, there is a goddess named Manasa found in the records of Mycenae, written as ma-na-sa in Linear B and we have similar Goddess Manasa in Hindu mythology from epics like Mahabharata. It clearly appears that PIE mythology was similar across all Indo-European civilizations the way DI-WO and DI-WI are used like DEVA or DEVI currently used in Hindu religion for God and Goddess. 

Linear A was the primary script used in palace and religious writings of the Minoan civilization. It was succeeded by Linear B, which was used by the Mycenaeans to write an early form of Greek. However, in the absence of readable texts from most of the period, modern scholars have reconstructed it almost totally based on archaeological evidence of such as Minoan paintings, statuettes, vessels for rituals and seals and rings. Below is one such closest similarities between MANASA (Hindu Goddess of Snake) with that of Snake Goddess figurines from Minoan civilization. 

It is generally agreed that the dominant figure in Minoan religion was a goddess like early Hindu Religion from Indus Valley Civilization. After the Mycenaean invasion in ancient Greece, inscriptions in Linear B give the names of some deities, also found from mainland Mycenean Greece. However common to every ancient religion appears to be Circumpolar Star Mythology.

The Phaistos Disk is a disk of fired clay from the Minoan palace of Phaistos on the island of Crete, possibly dating to the middle or late Minoan Bronze Age (second millennium BC) and they clearly show ancient RigVedic astrological star allegories that belonged to PIE mythology. 
Many attempts have been made to decipher Phaistos Disk code behind the disc's signs and below is my attempt to decipher this using ancient Star mythology.

On several Thebes tablets, we find Po-ti-ni-ja (Potnia, "lady" or "mistress"). Inscriptions in Linear B found at Pylos, mention the goddesses Pe-re-swa, who may be related with Persephone, and Si-to po-ti-ni-ja who is an agricultural goddess. A cult title of Demeter is "Sito" (σίτος: Grain). Sita occurs as an agricultural Goddess in Rigveda IV. 57.6-7. She is a fertility deity and is worshipped in the Rig Veda. Rig Veda hymn 4.57.6 mentions her – She is the furrow. She is prayed for bountiful crops. Her blessings are taken for good crops.
As mentioned above, we find similar reference of SITO (Si-Ta-Ya) in Helmand civilization flourished between 3200 and 2350 BCE and some scholars identify RigVedic Sarasvati with the Helmand or Haraxvati river since Sanskrit S changes to H in Avestan language. Sarasvatī may be a cognate of Avestan Haraxvatī, perhaps referring to Arədvī Sūrā Anāhitā, the Zoroastrian mythological world river, which would point to a common Indo-Iranian myth of a cosmic or mystical Sarasvati. In the younger Avesta, Haraxvatī is Arachosia, a region described to be rich in rivers, and its Old Persian cognate Harauvati, which gave its name to the present-day Hārūt River in Afghanistan, may have referred to the entire Helmand drainage basin (the center of Arachosia).

According to H. Lommel(German Indologist and Iranologist)the original name of the divinity in Indo-Iranian times was Sarasvatī, which also means "she who possesses waters".In Sanskrit, the name आर्द्रावी शूरा अनाहिता means "of the waters, mighty, and immaculate". Similar to Hindu mythology Sarasvatī, Anāhitā of Avestan myths mentions this river that nurtures crops and herds; and she is hailed both as a divinity and as the mythical river which she personifies, "as great in bigness as all these waters which flow forth upon the earth" (Yasht 5.3).As per (Yasht 10.88) ....Harā is tall and luminous. The sacred plant haoma(Soma in Vedic) grows on Harā. It is also the home of the yazata Mithra. It is the site in legend of sacrifices (yasnas) to the yazatas Mithra, SraošaArədvī Sūrā Anāhitā, Vayu, and Druvāspa, by sacrificers such as the divine priest Haoma (epitome of the sacred plant) and kings like Haošyaŋha and Yima.

The river was known to the ancient Iranians as Haraxvaiti in Avestan and Harahuvati in Old Persian, which are cognate with Rigvedic Sarasvati (as described in its “family books”). Greek Arachosia is believed to be a hellenisation of the name, meaning the land of Haraxvaiti.

Rigveda’s hymn VI.61.2 describes it with the words:
By means of her gushing and powerful waves, this (Sarasvatī) has crushed the ridge of the mountains, (breaking river banks) like a man who digs for lotus roots; with praises and prayers, we solicit Sarasvatī for her help, (Sarasvatī) who slays the foreigners.

Historian Asko Parpola states: “Arghandab […] descends from a height of nearly four kilometers down to about 700 meters, when it joins the Helmand River, which eventually forms shallow lakes.” Sarasvatī- is interpreted to mean “full of lakes”.

Several Indian historians, however, state that the Avestan Haraxvaiti as well as the Rigvedic Sarasvati refer to the Helmand River. The Rigvedic name of Arghandab is then believed to be Drishadvati.

It appears that early RigVedic tribes have settled close by the river Helmand that is the central part of western and eastern rivers frequently mentioned in the Rig Veda as below:
  • Sarayu river is mentioned in RigVeda(RV X.64.9, IV.30.18.,V.53.9) and this river is identified with Avestan Harayu or Hari-rud of Afghanistan
  • Kubha river mentioned in RigVeda(RV V.53.9, X.75.6.) is identified with the Kabul river of Afghanistan.
  • Krumu river mentioned in RigVeda(RV V.53.9, X.75.6) is identified with the Kurram river of Afghanistan. 
  • Many scholars mention that Rigvedic description(Rigveda (RV 6.61.8) of Saraswati and Avestan description of Harahvaiti in Helmand is almost same.

The settlement near Helmand - Harahvaiti(Saraswati) basin appeared around 3200 BCE in and around location of Ram Shahristan (or Abrashariyar) which also was the ancient capital of Sistan (Sakastan), in what is now southwestern Afghanistan and southeastern IranSir-ra-an-qa was Elamite reference for Zranka(current Zaranj) as captured below.

Shahr-i Sokhta(Burnt city) in Zaranj had four stages of civilization and was burnt down three times before being abandoned. Shahr-i Sokhta shows signs of advanced civilization between the ages of 2900 and 1900 BC.

Using reverse engineering techniques, we can easily decipher Linear Elamite scripts using Kharosthi Script as shown below:

“SITHAYA”(Furrow/Plowed) in Jiroft Linear Elamite clearly appears Proto-Kharoshthi Script.

Coming back to migrations, Indo-Iranian(Aryan) migrations took place in multiple waves. The first wave consisted of the Indo-Aryan migration into Syria, founding the Mittani kingdom, and a migration south-eastward of the Vedic people in and around Hindu Kush and later into northern India.The Indo-Aryans split-off around 1900 BCE–1600 BCE with Avestan religion due to internal conflicts such as cultural split in rituals/deities worshipped, local rivers getting dried up etc. One group of Vedic Indo-Aryans were Mitanni's who founded the Mitanni kingdom in northern Syria;(c. 1600–1300 BCE) and the other group were the Vedic tribes who entered Indian sub-continent.

Arkaim (RussianАркаим) is an archaeological site in Russia, situated in the steppe of the Southern Ural. Scholars have identified the structure of Arkaim as the cities built "reproducing the model of the universe" described in ancient Aryan/Iranian spiritual literature, the Vedas and the Avesta. The structure consists of three concentric rings of walls and three radial streets, reflecting the city of King Yima described in the Rigveda. 

The Sintashta culture emerged from the interaction of two antecedent cultures. Its immediate predecessor in the Ural-Tobol steppe was the Poltavka culture, an offshoot of the cattle-herding Yamnaya horizon that moved east into the region. The oldest evidence of Vedic Swastika is available at Mezine, Ukraine. Some scholars believe that this was Proto-Indo-Iranians culture before their split into different groups and migration to Central Asia and from there to Persia and India and other parts of Eurasia. Proto-Indo-European (PIE)  is hypothesized to have been spoken as a single language from 4500 BC to 2500 BC during the Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age, though estimates vary by more than a thousand years. According to the prevailing Kurgan hypothesis, the original homeland of the Proto-Indo-Europeans may have been in the Pontic–Caspian steppe of eastern Europe. The linguistic reconstruction of PIE has provided insight into the pastoral culture and patriarchal religion of its speakers. Proto-Indo-European mythology is the body of myths and deities associated with the Proto-Indo-Europeans, the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language. One of the earliest attested and thus one of the most important of all Indo-European mythologies is Vedic mythology, especially the mythology of the Rigveda, the oldest of the Vedas.

As speakers of Proto-Indo-European became isolated from each other through the Indo-European migrations, the regional dialects of Proto-Indo-European spoken by the various groups diverged, as each dialect underwent shifts in pronunciation (the Indo-European sound laws), morphology, and vocabulary. Over many centuries, these dialects transformed into the known ancient Indo-European languages. From there, further linguistic divergence led to the evolution of their current descendants, the modern Indo-European languages. Today, the descendant languages of PIE with the most native speakers are Spanish, English, Portuguese, Hindustani (Hindi and Urdu), Bengali, Russian, Punjabi, German, Persian, French, Marathi, Italian, and Gujarati.

Most important of all rivers in Central Asia are Oxus and Jaxartes that run parallel. Ancient Persian/Avestan texts refer these rivers as Yakhsha and VakhshaOxus is corrupted from Sanskrit word for Vaks ( Vaksh River) meaning speech. The Greek name for river Jax-artes or Iax-artes is derived from Old Persian name "Yakhsha Arta" or Cakshu/Ikshu (Sanskrit) means eye. Vakshu means speech.

Details about Oxus and History:

Vakhsh in its eastern parts(Vak means Speech in Sanskrit)

These rivers(Yakhsha and Vakhsha) flows for a length of 2400 km across modern Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan into Lake Aral. There are evidences that earlier, it used to meet Caspian sea(Kaspische Zee) and the river course got changed possibly due to earth quakes. 

Many agree that early Vedic civilization origins in Central Asia was around Oxus/Vakhsh (Vaku) rivers .Vaku(Vaksh River) signifies Speech and Iksh(Cakshu River) signifies Vision/Eye. Ikshana (Sanskrit: īkṣaṇa) is a noun which means sight.

There is a relationship with Iksh-vaku (Sharp sight-speech), the well-known sage. Iksh-vaku is the great grandson of sage Kashyapa. Lord Rama, Lord Buddha and great Suryavanshi kings belong to Ikshvaku dynasty. 

As per Hindu mythology, Ikshvaku founded Ikshvaku dynasty. He was one of the ten sons of Shraddhadeva Manu(Vivasvan or Satyavrata) the first man on the earth. Vivasvan Manu was son Surya(Sun God Vivasan) and SaranyuSaraṇyū is also known as Sanjana who was Vishwakarma's daughter and her shadow is called Chhaya.

Sanjana/Saranyu was unsatisfied with her marital life as per Hindu mythological sources(Harivamsa). According to the Markandeya Purana, Sanjana's behaviour changes as she is unable to bear the heat of Surya's splendor. After the birth of Yama and Yami, she is unable to tolerate Sun God and decides to abandon her husband. Before leaving, she creates a similar looking woman from her shadow (Chhaya) and asks her to take care of the children.Sources indicate that the children of Surya(Vivasvan) by Saranyu are: 
  • Shraddhadeva Manu — ancestor of humans(Father of Ikshvaku)
  • Yama — Lord of Death
  • Yami — Lady of Yamuna
  • Ashvins — The divine twin physicians.
  • Revanta — Master of horses
Most of these star mythology appears to be common in all Proto-Indo-European myths around this zone. The Meteorological or Naturist School holds that Proto-Indo-European myths initially emerged as explanations for natural phenomena, such as the Sky, the Sun, the Moon, and the DawnThe earth here was perceived as a vast, flat and circular continent surrounded by waters ("the Ocean"). Meru or Axis Mundi Model. In this flat earth concept, geography of night sky is connected with earth that has never-aging gods dwelling above in the skies, and the mortal humans living beneath on earth and Cosmic river was visualization of MilkyWay flowing from North (Heaven, Top of Meru, Hara etc. (Axis Mundi) that flows all the way from Circumpolar location(Heaven) touching earth.

Mount Meru (Sanskrit/Pali: मेरु), also recognized as Sumeru, Sineru or Mahāmeru, is the sacred five-peaked mountain of Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist cosmology and is considered to be the center of all the physical, metaphysical and spiritual universes. The dimensions attributed to Mount Meru — which all refer to it as a part of the Cosmic Ocean, along with several other statements that describe it in geographically vague terms (e.g., "the Sun along with all the planets circle the mountain") — make the determination of its location most difficult, according to most scholars.

Some researchers identify Mount Meru or Sumeru with the Pamirs, northwest of Kashmir.

In the ancient Zoroastrian scriptures of the AvestaHarā Bərəzaitī is the source of all mountains of the world. Harā Bərəzaitī came to be identified with Harborz and also Alborz, Mount Elbrus in the Caucasus range. In Avestan cosmogony, High Harā is the geographic center of the universe, immediately surrounded by the steppes of the Airyanem Vaejah, the first of the seven lands created by Ahura Mazda. From these high Hara mountains, waters rush down from the mountain as the mighty world river Arədvī Sūrā Anāhitā ( Vedic Saraswati Equivalent), which in turn feed the great sea Vourukaša.

The Suryasiddhanta mentions that Mt. Meru lies in the middle of the Earth ("bhuva-madhya") in the land of the Jambunad (Jampudvīpa). Narapatijayacharyasvarodaya, a ninth-century text, based on mostly unpublished texts of Yāmal Tantr, mentions:

"Sumeruḥ Prithvī-madhye shrūyate drishyate na tu"
(Su-meru is heard to be in the middle of the Earth, but is not seen there)

Logically in flat earth conceptSumeru is at the North Pole and Kumeru at the South pole and most of ancient scriptures describe Meru as the Central Pivot of the Universe and the entire cosmos revolves around it. 7 Sages(Big Dipper), the Sun, Moon and Stars paying obeisance while circum-ambulating the Holy Mountain. In Hindu cosmology, above Meru is Brahmalok or the 'Abode of Brahma'. In Norse mythology, they talk about about a World Tree that connects HeavenEarth and Hell just like Meru.  However every ancient scriptures have localized this mountain to location towards North Star.

According to Vayu Purana and Matsya Purana, river Vakshu(Oxus) and Cakshu (Jaxartes) flowed through the countries of TusharasLampakasPahlavas(Parthians)Paradas and the Sakas.

In section 
10.43 - 10.44 Manusmriti gives a list of Kshatriya tribes in Aryan lands who, through neglect of the priests and their rites, had fallen to the status of Shudras. These are Indo-Iranian tribes: Pundrakas, Codas, Kambojas(ancient Indo-Scythian people), Yavanas(Greeks), Sakas(ancient Indo-Scythian people), Paradas, Pahlavas(Saka-Parthians), Chinas, Kiratas and Daradas.

In the book (Who Were the Shudras?) by Dr. B R Ambedkar(Father of Indian Constitution), citing Rigveda, Mahabharata and other ancient Vedic scriptures, estimates that the Shudras were originally Aryans. Importantly, Ambedkar states that the Shudras of Hindu society are entirely different from Shudras of ancient Indo-Aryan Society with below points:

1.The Shudras were one of the Aryan communities of the solar race.
2. There was a time when the Aryan society recognized only three Varnas, namely. Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas.
3. The Shudras did not form a separate Varna. They ranked as part of the Kshatriya Varna in the Indo-Aryan society.
4. There was a continuous feud between the Shudra kings and the Brahmins in which the Brahmins were subjected to many tyrannies and indignities.
5. As a result of the negligence towards the Shudras generated by their tyrannies and oppressions, the Brahmins refused to perform the Upanayana of the Shudras.
6. Owing to the denial of Upanayana, the Shudras who were Kshatriyas became socially degraded, fell below the rank of the Vaishyas and thus came to form the fourth Varna

Raghuvamsha - a 5th-century Sanskrit play by Kalidasa, attests their presence on river Vakshu (Oxus) as neighbors to the Hunas (Raghu: 4.68-70) during King Raghu's campaign. Kalidasa describes the preponderance of walnut trees in the Oxus country, this particular region is still known for the cultivation of walnuts. Raghu was the great grandfather of Shri Rama, grandfather of Dasharatha, after whom the Suryavanshi (solar dynasty) clan of the Raghuvanshi was named.

Puranas associate the Pahlavas(Parthians) with the Kambojas, Sakas, Yavanas and Paradas and brands them together as Panca-ganah (fiver-hordes). According to Puranic accounts, king Sagara had divested the Paradas and other members of the well-known Pānca-gana (i.e. the Sakas, Yavanas, Kambojas and Pahlavas) of their Kshatriyahood and turned them into the Mlechchas. Before their defeat at the hands of king Sagara, these five-hordes were called Kshatriya-pungava (i.e. foremost among the Kshatriyas).

The Balakanda of the Ramayana groups the Pahlavas( Parthians) with the Sakas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Mlechhas and the Kiratas and refers to them as military allies of sage Vasishtha against Vedic sage king Vishwamitra.

The Kiskindha Kanda of Ramayana associates the Pahlavas(Parthians) with the Yavanas, Shakas, Kambojas, Paradas (Varadas), Rishikas and the Uttarakurus etc. and locates them all in the trans-Himalayan territories i.e. in the Sakadvipa

Later the Mahabharata also associates the Pahlavas with the Sakas, Yavanas, Gandharas, Kambojas, Tusharas, Sabaras, Barbaras, etc. and addresses them all as the barbaric tribes of Uttarapatha. In Kurukshetra War, the Pahlavas along with the Sakas, Kiratas, Yavanas etc. joined Saradwat’s son Kripacharya, the high-souled and mighty bowman, and took up their positions at the northern point of the army.

The Buddhist drama Mudrarakshas by Visakhadutta and the Jaina works Parishishtaparvan refer to Chandragupta's alliance with Himalayan king Parvatka. This Himalayan alliance gave Chandragupta a powerful composite army made up of the frontier martial tribes of the Shakas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Pahlavas, Bahlikas etc. which he utilized to defeat the Greek successors of Alexander and thus expanded his Mauryan Empire in northern India.

The Brihat-Katha-Manjari of the Kshmendra relates that around 400 AD, the Gupta king Vikramaditya (Chandragupta II) had "unburdened the sacred earth of the barbarians" like the Shakas, Mlecchas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Tusharas, Parasikas, Hunas, etc. by annihilating these "unrighteous people" completely.

In ancient maps of Strabo, we can clearly see that Caspian Sea was known as 'Kasyap Meer' or 'Kaspische Zee/Sea' named after Rishi Kashyap - the father of the devas, asuras, nagas and all of humanity as per Hindu Mythology. 
The Saka was the term used in Persian and Sanskrit sources for the Scythians dwelled on the Eurasian Steppe.  The Sakas were Indo-Europeans with dialect similar to Sanskrit. The Sakas migrated into Central Asia and then to the northwest of the Indian subcontinent where they were known as the Indo-Scythians. 

Siddhartha Gautama is also referred Sakyamuni Buddha and he belonged to the Shakya clan of India that has been identified as SakasIn Serbian, "Vede" is knowledge, tat(a) - father (I) and mat(a) = root for mother in Slavic languages. TATAMATA also means someone who knows all and can do all. In same way in ancient SlavicSanskrit or PaliGata "gone" and  Āgata "come" and in this interpretation, Tathāgata means literally either “the one who has gone to suchness” or "the one who has arrived at suchness" and referred to Lord Buddha himself

Reference :

The Kalasha(Sanskrit: कलश kalaśa; literally "pitcher, pot") is considered a symbol of abundance and "source of life" in the Vedas and known from the time of Rigveda. The Kalasha is believed to contain amrita(Soma), the elixir of life, and thus is viewed as a symbol of abundance, wisdom, and immortality.

You can still find ancient Kalash people/pantheon( Dardic Indo-Aryan indigenous people residing in the Chitral District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan) and this tribe is one of last living representatives of Indo-European religion. Kalash mythology and folklore has been compared to that of ancient Greece, but they are much closer to Indo-Iranian (pre-Zoroastrian-Vedic) traditions. Based on their shared genetic drift, it is considered that they may be an ancient drifted North Eurasian stock

Ancient Vedic deities were revered only in Kalash community or tribe, the ancient Hindu god Yama Râja is referred as Imr'o in Kâmviri, Imra (*Yama Rājan), Māra 'death' (Nuristani). According to Sanskrit linguist Michael Witzel, the traditional Kalash religion shares many of the traits of myths, ritual, society, and echoes many aspects of Rigvedic, but not of the post-Rigvedic religion that developed in India.

Padmasana or lotus position (Sanskritपद्मासन) is a cross-legged sitting asana originating in meditative practices of Hinduism.It is an ancient predating hatha yoga, and is commonly used for meditation, in the YogaJain, and Buddhist contemplative traditions. Shiva, the meditating ascetic God of HinduismSiddhartha Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, and the Tirthankaras (Ford-Makers) in Jainism have been depicted in the lotus position.

Concept of LingamSacred Bull(Nandi) (Taurus constellation), God re-birth myth during winter solstice and other related myths of star constellations is clearly visible in World's First temple, Gobekli Tepe, Turkey around 11500-11000BCE. 
8500BCE - Nevali cori figurines(Reference : Nevalı Çori - Wikipedia) closely matches with ancient Egyptian and Hindu priests. The Sikha signifies one-pointed (ekanta) focus on a spiritual goal, and devotion to God. It is also an indication of cleanliness, as well as personal sacrifice to God. According to ancient smriti shastras, it was mandatory for all Hindus to keep Sikha - Wikipedia ( Currently we can see mainly among Brahmins and temple priests). 

Early Egyptian religion which is almost similar to Hinduism had mandate for all to wear Sikha including prince and they did this to differentiate people with knowledge of scribe/writing.

Harahvaiti is Persian reference for Vedic river Sarasvati. The oldest recorded name Harvat was found in the Mittani documents spoken by King Tusratta some 3500 years ago. In the documents he refers to his Kingdom as Huravat Ehillaku. He was a Vedic King, Tusratta being a corruption of Dasaratha. King Dasaratha was one of many Vedic Kings who ruled the Kingdom of Mittani. The chronology of these Mittani Kings are as follows: Kirta - Suttarna - Baratarna - Parsatatar - Saustatar - Rtadharma - Suttarna II - Artashumara - Dasaratha - Mativasa - Sattuara - Vashasatta - Sattuara II.

The Hittite archives of Àattušašhave revealed the oldest known horse-training manual. 
Several Indo-Aryantechnical terms for horse training are mentioned in this manual: aikawartanna ‘one turn (of the course)’ (Sanskrit eka-vartana-)terawartanna ‘three turns’, panzawartanna ‘five turns’ (Sanskrit pañca-),sattawartanna ‘seven turns’ (Sanskrit sapta-), and nawartanna (for nawa-wartanna) ‘nine turns’ (Sanskrit nava). The first time historically the word Ratha is used as chariot is around 1650BCE with the Hurrians of the Middle East. These Hurrian's had hundreds of Vedic Sanskrit loan words. (Assuwa) is name of an Anatolian landscape in Hittite and Assyrian sources of the 15th century BCE. 

Deities of Kassite Dynasty near Mittani have striking similarities of Vedic Gods.
In same context, Bag'van related names appears as far as Russia, Romania and most of European countries. This is used by automobile companies like Bogdan group, famous football players and other great personalities. 'Bogdan' or Bohdan is derived from the Slavic words Bog/Boh (Cyrillic: Бог), meaning "god", and dan (Cyrillic: дан), meaning "gift. Either Bogdan or Bohdan may be used in Poland.

Just as example, take name Baghdad (/ˈbæɡdæd, bəɡˈdæd/; Arabic: بغداد‎ [baɣˈdaːd]) which is the capital of Iraq and you find close similarities with Indo-European languages. Bagh refers “GOD” and dad “given”, translating to “God-given” and both of these civilization refer this town with same meaning from ancient days till today. Baghvad Purana is "God given epic" in our Hindu Mythology. Again, we refer GOD as 'Bhag' for Bhagvan Buddha, Bhagvan Rama, Bhagvan Krishna etc. A devotee of Bhagvan Krishna is called a Bhagavata. This is my current surname :-).
'Dan' is gift in Sanskrit, Kannada, Hindi and almost all India languages even today and Bhag is god for referring Bhagvad Gita, Bhagvan and Bhag followers like us as 'Bhagwath'

Just take below example of nouns and verbs used by Croatians or even Russians in many cases. It is almost similar like Sanskrit that is used here in India.

Nouns ( Croatian and Russian)
Sanskrit Equivalent
English Meaning
Verbs ( Croatian and Russian)
Sanskrit Equivalent
English Meaning
vad – vadit
vad – vadati
to confer or dispute about; to contend, quarrel
pros – prosit
prach – prachhati
to ask, to question, interrogate
vɨspra – vɨsprašivaet
viprach – viprcchati
to ask various questions, make various inquiries
peč – pečyot
pас – pacati
to cook, bake, roast, boil
lay – laet
rai – rayati
to bark
bɨ – budet
bhū – bhavati
to become, be
tuz – tuzit
tuj – tojayati
to hurt
gor – gorit
ghṛ – ghаrati
to shine, burn
las – laskaet
las – lasāti
to play, sport, frolic; to embrace
voz – vozit
vah – vahati
to carry, transport, convey
lov – lovit
labh – labhate
to take, seize, catch
lel – lelyeet
lal – lālayati
to  caress, fondle, foster, cherish
bav – bаvit
bhū – bhavayati
exist, be found, live, stay, abide, happen, occur; to cause to be or become; to cherish, foster
kasl – kaslyaet
kās – kāsate
to cough
svet – svetaet
śvit – śvetate
to be bright or white
mer – mryot
mṛ – marati
to die, decease
pi – p’yot
pī – piyate
to drink
suš – sušit
śuṣ – śuṣyati
to dry, become dry or withered
mor – morit
mṛ – mārayati
to cause to die, kill, slay
pad – padyot
pad – padyate
to fall
perd – perdit
pard – pardati
to break wind downwards
boya – boitsya
bhyas – bhyasate
to fear, be afraid, tremble
otda – otdayot
uddā – uddadāti
to give away
vɨd – vɨdayot
vidā – vidadāti
to give out, distribute, grant
po – poit
pa – pāyayati
to cause to drink, give to drink, water (horses or cattle)
i – idyot
iṭ – eṭati
to go
bɨv – bɨvaet
bhū – bhavati
to happen, occur
mes – mesit
miśr – miśrayati
to mix, mingle, blend, combine
zna – znaet
jña – jānāti
to know, have knowledge
liz – ližet
lih – lihati
to lick
vɨliz – vɨlizɨvaet
vilih – vilelihat
to lick continually or repeatedly
živ – živaet
jīv – jīvati
to live, be or remain alive
ver – veraet
vṛ – varati
to cove, screen, veil, conceal, hide, surround, obstruct, to close (a door)
lyub – lyubit
lubh – lubhati
to desire greatly or eagerly, long for, be interested in
vorot – vorotit
vṛt – vartayati
to cause to turn or revolve
top – topit
tap – tapati
to make hot or warm
mer – merit
mi – miroti
to measure, meter, out, mark
do – doit
dhe –  dhayati
to suck, drink
val – valit
val – valiti
to turn, turn round
vɨlup – vɨlupit
vilup – vilumpati
to tear or break off or to pieces, wound, lacerate pull out or up; to tear away
slav – slavit
śram – śramyati
sound, shout, loud praise
tyan – tyanet
tan – tanoti
to stretch (a cord), extend
ri – rinet
rī – riṇāti
to release, set free, let go
vert – vertit
vṛt – vartate
to turn, turn round, revolve, roll
rev – revyot
ru – ravīti
to roar, bellow, howl, yelp, cry aloud
val – valyaet
val – valate
to turn, turn round
vid – vidit
vid – vidati
to notice,  observe; to know, understand, perceive, learn, become or be acquainted with, be conscious of
isk – iščet
iṣ –  icchati; eṣati
to seek, search; to desire, wish, long for, request
proda – prodast
pradā – pradatte
to give away, give, offer, sell
oddel – oddelyaet
uddal – uddalati
to split away, break away
tryas – tryasyot
tras –  trasyati
to tremble
bles – bleščet
bhlāś – bhlāśate
to shine, beam, glitter
sid – sidit
sad – sīdati
to sit upon or in or at smth.
spa – spit
svap – svapiti
to sleep,  fall asleep
rɨd – rɨdaet
rud – rodati
to weep, cry, howl, roar, lament, wail
klešč – kleščit
kliś – kliśnati
to torment, cause pain
bde – bdit
budh – budhyati
to be awake
lip – lipnet
lip – limpyati
to be smeared; to be attached to, to stick, to adhere
lep – lepit
lip – lepayati
the act of smearing, daubing, anointing, plastering
vɨtyan – vɨtyanet
vitan – vitanute
to spread out, to stretch, extend,  to unfold, display, exhibit, manifest
vɨživ – vɨživaet
vijīv – vijīvati
to revive, return to life
slad – sladit
svad – svadati
to make sweet or pleasant or agreeable
plav – plavaet
plu – plavate
to float, swim
bra – beryot
bhṛ – bharati
to hold, possess, have, keep
mni – mnit
mna – manate
to think, believe, imagine
pɨt – pɨtaet
piṭh – peṭhati
to inflict or feel pain
kas – kasaet
kaṣ – kaṣati
to  test, try; to rub
vɨver – vɨvernet
vivṛti – vivartate
to turn back or away
vert – vertaet
vṛt – vartate
to turn, turn round
vert – vertit
vrt – vartayati
to cause to turn or revolve
bud – budit
budh – budhyate
to wake up
vol – volit
vṛ – vṛṇoti; varayati
to choose, select, choose for one’s self, choose as; to like, love well

Croatian people call themselves Hrvati when it comes to defining their origins and tracing their ancient roots they turn towards the land of Iran and Persia from Harahvaiti/Sarasvati river belt.

In similar parallels on much earlier migration of Vedic tribes towards east from Rigvedic river Sarasvati, DNA study clearly shows rare R1a1 Y-haplogroup (Y-HG) L657 clade subtype designated as LPKSTR found in most male members of a clan of “founder” families within the Pancha Gaud Brahmin(RigVedic Sarasvat Brahmin community) and several others. 

DNA Reference:
 Genetic and Cultural Reconstruction of the Migration of an Ancient Lineage of Sarasvat Brahmins or Brahmins of Sarasvati river 

Aryavarta or Aryā daiŋ́hāvā is present both in Indo-Aryan geography(Avestan and Vedic) on either side of Hindu Kush mountains.  Avestan Geography is like RigVedic geography with reference to ancient towns/tribes found in epics like Ramayana and Mahabharata. Probably people of this Indo-Aryan civilization shared same history and geography as we see in these later composed epics based on below striking similarities:
  • Vedic Mitra and Avestan Mithra (Roman-Graeco Mithras)
  • Vedic Aryaman and Avestan Airyaman
  • Vedic Varuna and Avestan Ahuramazda
  • Vedic Indra and Avestan Verethra
  • Vedic Surya and Avestan Hvarxsaeta
  • Vedic Agni and Avestan Atar (Roman-Graceo culture - Ignis)
  • Vedic Hiranya and Avestan Zaranya (Gold)
  • Vedic Seyna and Avestan Hayna (Army)
  • Vedic Rsti and Avestan Arsti (Spear)
  • Vedic Ksatra and Avestan Xsatra (Sovereignty)
  • Vedic Asura and Avestan Ahura (Lord)
  • Vedic Yajna and Avestan Yasna (Sacrifice)
  • Vedic Hotar and Avestan Zaotar (Sacrificing Priest)
  • Vedic Soma and Avestan Haoma (Sacrificing Drink)
  • Vedic Turvasas and Avestan Tuiryas (Turan tribes)
  • Vedic Purus and Avestan Pouru (Pouru tribes)
  • Vedic Dasyu and Avestan Dahai ( Dahan Scythians)
  • Vedic Parsu and Avestan Parsa
  • Vedic Saraswati and Avestan Haraxvaiti (Arachosia)
  • Vedic Sapta Sindhu and Avestan Hapta Hindu( Indus River)
  • Vedic Sarayu and Avestan Harayu( Hari River — Afghanistan)
  • Vedic Panis and Avestan Parthians(Scythian tribe)
  • Vedic Yavanas and Avestan Yauna(Ionians - Greeks)
  • Vedic Bhalanas to Bhalanas tribes lived in East Kabulistan(Bolan Pass)
  • Vedic Vaikarṇa (Vaikarna) (Udichya Āryāvarta — Northern Āryāvarta)tribes to Avestan Varkana Tribes — Varkana (thought to mean land of the wolves) — Hyrcania, Old Persian Varkana, (“Wolf’s Land”), ancient region located southeast of the Caspian Sea. 

NOTE Sir-ra-an-qa was Elamite reference for Zranka(current Zranj) and sounds like Sri Lanka.

SPOT 1 : Ayodhya in Valmiki Ramayana is described to be on the banks of the Sarayu. Possibly it could have been Harayu river(S= H) and Valmiki Ramayana might have been composed in below ancient RigVedic geography.

NOTE : One 'yojana' is almost equivalent to two miles(12 kms) in distance and this should be around 1200KMS that is exactly distance from (Harayu River bank-Panchavati(Panjwai)-Kishkinda-Sabari lake -Zranka of Afghanistan) - 1200 KMS.
The current distance between Ayodhya of India to Sri Lanka is approximately 3,000km and roughly one would take around 66 days, but from Valmiki Ramayana, we learn that Lord Ram returned to Ayodhya near Sarayu river from Lanka in just 20 days by foot and further according to Ramayana written by ValmikiLanka was hundred '100 yojana' away which comes around 1200 KMS. This distance could be perhaps distance from Ayodhya or banks of Harayu river itself. Hence confusion comes on actual location of Lanka(Current Srilanka that is 3000KMS away or some other Lanka that is 1200KMS away ?).
With distance of 1200KMS(100 Yojanas) mentioned in Valmiki Ramayana, I strongly believe Lanka was ancient Zranka of Afghanistan. Please note “Sir-ra-an-qa” was Elamite reference for Zranka(current Zaranj) clearly sounds like Sri Lanka.
Zranka to banks of Harayu river in Afghanistan is approximately 20 days on foot and 1200 KMS that matches Valmiki’s description exactly. Hence Zranka/Sir-ra-an-qa was Lanka/Sri Lanka of ancient times.
Geography from Valmiki's Ramayana captures below important spots during Rama’s journey to Lanka and has striking similarities with ancient towns and rivers in Afghanistan :
SPOT 1 : Sarayu River bank- It could be Harayu River of Afghanistan ?
SPOT 2 : Ram’s Forest Exile - Chitrakoot, Dandakaranya in Kara kingdomChitrakoot could be Chitral Mountain Valley and Kara mountains of Afghanistan could be Kara kingdom(Black mountains) near Nuristan Forest Range.
SPOT 3 : Panchavati Ashram could be Panjwai province of Afghanistan?
SPOT 4 :- Kishkinda - could be Kishk-e Nakhūd of Afghanistan?
SPOT 5 : Meeting Sabari - could be Sabari lake of Afghanistan?
SPOT 6: Lanka - could be Zranka(Elamite : Sir-ra-an-qa) of Afghanistan?
Valmiki Ramayana clearly mentions that Kekeya region has Saraswati flowing and also land of BharataBharata is the name of Kaikeyi’s son - Two cities founded by the descendants of Bharata are Taksha(current Taxila) and Pushkara/Pushkalavati(current Peshawar). This Kekeya region is identified as Gandhara(Current Kandhara) - refer above image for Kandhara/Gandhara region to locate Harahvaiti/Saraswati river.
SPOT 2 : Lord Ram’s Forest exile was ChitrakutaChitrakuta means the 'Hill of many wonders'. Kūṭa (कूट):—The word, kūṭa, gives several meanings of which one is “the summit or peak of a mountain”. It also means “end” or “corner”. Valmiki Ramayana mentions that it was in these deep forests and mountain ranges that Ram, Goddess Sita and his brother Lakshman spent eleven years and six months of their fourteen years of banishment and next to this was Dandaka Forest range which was ruled by Ravana's governor by name "Kara".

To be exact specific of Valmiki's description, we have Chitral peak mountain valley next to Nuristan Forest range that is greenest portion of Afghanistan and it is this valley that gives birth to several mentioned RigVedic rivers and matches exactly to description given by Valmiki of crystal clear rivers and lakes.
KARA is black in Old Persian and Sanskrit and this region on east of Herat is full of Black mountains. Karakoram is also a Turkic term meaning black gravel and we also have famous Kara-Khanid Khanate later from this region. Karakul is wool from black sheeps from this region of Afghanistan and has several glacial lakes on northern side and it is this region of Afghanistan that is rich in iron ore. Possibly the largest deposit( 2 billion tones) of iron ore in entire Asia that makes mountains  appear black(Kara) in colorKara kingdom of Valmiki Ramayana could be Kara region of Afghanistan. Ravana's governor Kara ruled this province and a stronghold of the Rakshasa tribes. River or lake is mentioned at the northern entrance of this forest and we can find Chitral river. As per Valmiki Ramayana, head of a wicked-souled Rakshasa was killed here by Rama in Kara Kingdom. Possibly this could be personification of Black or Kara mountains of this region in poetic terms.

Chitral is drained by the Kunar River which flows southward, through Afghanistan, to meet the East flowing Kabul River near Hadda(Jalalabad) - Adinapur(Current name Jalalabad) or Hasti in Sanskrit. This downstream of Chitral river in earlier times was known as the “Sita River” as per Tibetan sources:

Uddiyana Until The Eighth Century
Library: Member Essays Uddiyana Until the Eighth Century: A Short Historical Overview A long time ago, in the far northwest corner of Old India, there once was a verdant and splendid Kingdom, inhabited by a gentle and cultured race of people. Surrounded by high, rugged mountain peaks, the broad valleys of this Kingdom fostered fertile farms and bustling towns. Frequently the traveler could see, nestled in quiet vales, here and there throughout the land, the golden pagoda roofs of whitewashed temples and monasteries, where learned sages treasured wondrous archives of hand scripted books recording mankind's accumulated knowledge. Here too could be found the pleasant sanctuaries of gracious ladies of wisdom, the convents and forest chapels of a unique sisterhood-priestesses, prophetesses (name them as you will, there does not appear to be a proper English term for a wise woman of religion who need not be a nun) dedicated to knowledge and the science of harmonious spiritual development. Here and there, in ages long gone, industrious men had raised towering white cenotaphs, with golden spires; those pyramidal monuments known in the East as Stupas, which honour the remains of some particularly renowned saint. In the towns of this magical Kingdom, merchants plied their ceaseless trade, displaying all the riches of greater Asia: the finest coloured silks from far off China, the softest kashmere from Kinnaur, lustrous golden ware from the matriarchy of Suvarnadwipa, rubies and emeralds from southern India and Ceylon, gleaming white pearls from the legendary island of Bahrain, delicate copper work from the craft shops of the Himalaya, orange coloured saffron from nearby Kashmir, subtle spices from Indonesia, and finely wrought sandalwood carvings from Nepal. From Persia came inlay and fine jewelry and poetry. From Bactria they imported skilled doctors and medicine and lapis lazuli and Greek knowledge from yet further west. This was a wealthy land. This was the ancient Kingdom of Uddiyana; so beautiful a Kingdom, that its very name means "the royal garden" (from the Skt: udyana). With cascading pure rivers splashing down from ice-bound lakes high in the snowy peaks beyond, and quiet pools stocked with fish, with lush meadows,  in raiment of every variety of wildflower, Uddiyana truly seemed a paradise on earth. No wonder people from far and wide spoke of it as a magical place, the hidden flower garden of the wise and compassionate Lord Buddha. We today are able to gain a fairly vivid picture of the ancient Kingdom of Uddiyana, because in the year 630 A.D., a renowned heroic Chinese Buddhist pilgrim, known by the name of Huen Tsiang, passed through the heart of

The Kalash People are considered to be an indigenous Indo-Aryan people of Asia, with their ancestors migrating to Chitral valley from another location possibly further south, which the Kalash call (Siyam)"Tsiyam" in their folk songs and epics. Kalash mythology and folklore has been compared to that of ancient Greece, but they are much closer to the Hindu traditions(RigVedic).

Kalash people - Wikipedia
Indigenous ethnoreligious group residing in Chitral, Pakistan The Kalasha ( Kalasha : کاࣇاشؕا, romanised: Kaḷaṣa ; Kalasha-ala : Kalaṣa ; Urdu : کالاش ‎), or Kalash , also called Waigali or Wai , are a Dardic Indo-Aryan indigenous people residing in the Chitral District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan . They speak the Kalasha language , from the Dardic family of the Indo-Aryan branch . They are considered unique among the people of Pakistan. [8] [9] [10] They are also considered to be Pakistan's smallest ethnoreligious group , [11] and traditionally practice a religion which some authors characterise as a form of animism , [4] [5] [6] while academics classify it as "a form of ancient Hinduism ". [2] [3] [12] During the mid-20th century an attempt was made to put force on a few Kalasha villages in Pakistan to convert to Islam, but the people fought the conversion and, once official pressure was removed, the vast majority resumed the practice of their own religion. [9] Nevertheless, about half of the Kalasha have since gradually converted to Islam, despite being shunned afterward by their community for having done so. [7] [13] The term is used to refer to many distinct people including the Väi, the Čima-nišei, the Vântä, plus the Ashkun - and Tregami -speakers. [9] The Kalash are considered to be an indigenous people of Asia, with their ancestors migrating to Chitral valley from another location possibly further south, [8] [14] which the Kalash call "Tsiyam" in their folk songs and epics. [15] Some of the Kalash traditions consider the various Kalash people to have been migrants or refugees. [16] They are also considered by some to have been descendants of Gandhari people . [17] The neighbouring Nuristani people (including the Kalasha-ala ) of the adjacent Nuristan (historically known as Kafiristan ) province of Afghanistan once had the same culture and practised a faith very similar to that of the Kalash, differing in a few minor particulars. [18] [19] The first historically recorded Islamic invasions of their lands were by the Ghaznavids in the 11th century [20] while they themselves are first attested in 1339 during Timur 's invasions. [17] Nuristan had been forcibly converted to Islam in 1895–96, although some evidence has shown the people continued to practice their customs. [21] The Kalash of Chitral have maintained their own separate cultural traditions. [22] Culture [ edit ] The culture of the Kalash people is unique and differs in many ways from the many contemporary Islamic ethnic groups surrounding them in northwestern Pakistan. They are polytheists and nature plays a highly significant and spiritual role in their daily life. As part of their religious tradition, sacrifices are offered and festivals held to give thanks for the abundant resources of their three valleys. Kalasha Desh (the three Kalash valleys) is made up of two distinct cultural areas, the valleys of Rumbur and Bumburet forming one, and Birir Valley the other; B

The toponym Hadda/Hasti(Jalalabad) has its origins in Sanskrit hadda n. m., "a bone". The other name: Hasti. Some people have belief that Hadda housed a bone-relic of Buddha. In 630 AD, Xuan Zang, the famous Chinese Buddhist monk, visited Jalalabad, which he referred to as Adinapur that has origins from earlier Hasti/Hadda ( bone relics).

This was also known as land of BharataBharata is the name of Kaikeyi’s son - Two cities founded by the descendants of Bharata are Taksha(current Taxila) and Pushkara/Pushkalavati(current Peshawar). This Kekeya region is identified as Gandhara(Current Kandhara) as per Hindu mythology.
It was this location probably Hasti/Hadda was immersed during Vedic death rituals, hence name Adinapur(Current name Jalalabad). We also have reference of Lord Rama performing Shraddha(Hasti Visarjan) of his father at Chitrakoot down valley.

Archaeological site in Afghanistan Haḍḍa ( Pashto : هډه ‎) is a Greco-Buddhist archeological site located ten kilometers south of the city of Jalalabad , in the Nangarhar Province of eastern Afghanistan . Hadda is said to have been almost entirely destroyed in the fighting during the civil war in Afghanistan . Background [ edit ] Some 23,000 Greco-Buddhist sculptures, both clay and plaster, were excavated in Hadda during the 1930s and the 1970s. The findings combine elements of Buddhism and Hellenism in an almost perfect Hellenistic style. Although the style of the artifacts is typical of the late Hellenistic 2nd or 1st century BCE, the Hadda sculptures are usually dated (although with some uncertainty), to the 1st century CE or later (i.e. one or two centuries afterward). This discrepancy might be explained by a preservation of late Hellenistic styles for a few centuries in this part of the world. However it is possible that the artifacts actually were produced in the late Hellenistic period. Given the antiquity of these sculptures and a technical refinement indicative of artists fully conversant with all the aspects of Greek sculpture, it has been suggested that Greek communities were directly involved in these realizations, and that "the area might be the cradle of incipient Buddhist sculpture in Indo-Greek style". [2] The style of many of the works at Hadda is highly Hellenistic, and can be compared to sculptures found at the Temple of Apollo in Bassae, Greece . The toponym Hadda has its origins in Sanskrit haḍḍa n. m., "a bone", or, an unrecorded *haḍḍaka, adj., "(place) of bones". The former - if not a fossilized form - would have given rise to a Haḍḍ in the subsequent vernaculars of northern India (and in the Old Indic loans in modern Pashto). The latter would have given rise to the form Haḍḍa naturally and would well reflect the belief that Hadda housed a bone-relic of Buddha. The term haḍḍa is found as a loan in Pashto haḍḍ, n., id. and may reflect the linguistic influence of the original pre-Islamic population of the area. Buddhist scriptures [ edit ] It is believed the oldest surviving Buddhist manuscripts-indeed the oldest surviving Indian manuscripts of any kind-were recovered around Hadda. Probably dating from around the 1st century CE, they were written on bark in Gandhari using the Kharoṣṭhī script, and were unearthed in a clay pot bearing an inscription in the same language and script. They are part of the long-lost canon of the Sarvastivadin Sect that dominated Gandhara and was instrumental in Buddhism's spread into central and east Asia via the Silk Road . The manuscripts are now in the possession of the British Library . Tapa Shotor monastery (2nd century CE) [ edit ] Seated Buddha, Tapa Shotor monastery (Niche V1), 2nd century CE, Hadda Tapa Shotor was a large Sarvastivadin Buddhist monastery. [3] [4] According to archaeologist Raymond Allchin , the site of Tapa Shotor suggests that the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara descend

The Gandhara grave culture(Hasti) may be an artifact of the Indo-Aryan migrations, but it may also be explained by regional cultural continuity.

Single burials are characteristic of the early phase, along with bronze objects and pottery within the graves. Cremation is distinctive in the middle phase, and ashes(Hasti) were laid in large jars, often bearing a human-like face design, this jars were then placed frequently in circular pits, surrounded by objects of bronze, gold and pottery.

Narasimhan et al. 2018 analyzed DNA of 362 ancient skeletons from this region and they state that the Swat valley grave DNA analysis provides gives clear evidence of connections between [Central Asian] Steppe population and early Vedic culture in India.

Gandhara grave culture - Wikipedia
The Gandhara grave culture , also called Swat culture , or Swat Protohistoric Graveyards Complex , emerged c. 1400 BCE and lasted until 800 BCE, [1] and there are no burials with these features after 800 BCE, as new fieldwork reveals. [2] It is found basically in Middle Swat River course, even though earlier research considered it to be expanded to the Valleys of Dir , Kunar , Chitral , and Peshawar . [3] It has been regarded as a token of the Indo-Aryan migrations, but has also been explained by local cultural continuity. Backwards projections, based on ancient DNA analyses, suggest ancestors of Swat culture people mixed with a population coming from Inner Asia Mountain Corridor , which carried Steppe ancestry, sometime between 1900 and 1500 BCE. [4] Location and characteristics [ edit ] Relevant finds, artifacts found primarily in graves, were distributed along the banks of the Swat and Dir rivers in the north, Taxila in the southeast, along the Gomal River to the south. Simply made terracotta figurines were buried with the pottery, and other items are decorated with simple dot designs. [5] Re-evaluation of the findings suggests this so-called Gandhara Grave Culture was actually a burial tradition, spread across a wide geographical area, rather than a specific culture. [6] There are more than thirty cemeteries of this tradition found in Swat and surrounding valleys of Dir , Buner , Malakand , Chitral , and in the Vale of Peshawar to the south, featuring cist graves, where large stone slabs were used to line the pit, above which another large flat stone was laid forming a roof over them, related settlement sites were also found which helped to know more of this people's life and death. [7] Anthropomorphic urns with cremation remains were not frequently found in graves, and most common pottery within these graves is Burnished Grey Ware and Burnished Red Ware , along with human terracotta figurines, however later graves are more elaborate featuring more items, various graves with horse remains and horse furniture were also reported. [8] Origins [ edit ] The Gandhara grave culture may be an artifact of the Indo-Aryan migrations, but it may also be explained by regional cultural continuity. Single burials are characteristic of the early phase, along with bronze objects and pottery within the graves. Cremation is distinctive in the middle phase, and ashes were laid in large jars, often bearing a human-like face design, this jars were then placed frequently in circular pits, surrounded by objects of bronze, gold and pottery. Multiple burials and fractional remains are found in the late phase, along with iron objects, coeval with the beginning of urban centers of Taxila and Charsadda . [9] However, new research, based on 34 excavated graves in Udegram, and in nearby site of Gogdhara, uncovered two burial phases, the first between 1400 and 1100 cal BCE, and the second from 1000 to 800 cal BCE, with an inter-phase in Gogdhara, from 1200 to 900 cal BCE.
SPOT 3 :Panchvati means five (pancha) - vati(banyan trees) and Valmiki Ramayana mentions this town on banks of a river. We also have famous town with same name - Panjwai in Afghanistan on bank of a RigVedic river. Possibly Panjwai of Afghanistan was Valmiki's Panchvati ( Town of five banyan or Peepal trees). This town also had ancient Ram Darbar temple that is completely destroyed now.

SPOT 4: Kishk-e Nakhūd
 of Afghanistan near Kandhara/Gandhara could be Kishk-indha of Valmiki Ramayana which was the kingdom of the Vanaras (forest-dwellers). 
SPOT 5:In same way, Hamun-e-Sabari lake in region near Zaranka sounds like Sabari of Ramayana. In Ramayana, Sabari could be personification of river/lake like Saraswati.

SPOT 6: Zranka ( Water lands of Sistan Basin) itself sounds like Lanka. “Sir-ra-an-qa” was Elamite reference for Zranka(current Zranj) clearly sounds like Sri Lanka. This region comprises territory around Hamun Lake, wetlands in endorheic Sistan Basin that comprised very huge lakes and possibly it was looking like island referred in Valmiki Ramayana.
In Ramayana, we know that Lanka was burnt by Hanuman and here, we have burnt city in Zranka.

Several Indian historians maintain that Avestan Harahvaiti as well as the Rigvedic Sarasvati refer to the Helmand River. This basin is completely dry now and possibly reason for people migration during ancient times.
Nearby Kingdom of Ayodhya was Mithila : Videha Kingdom were called Janakas that was near KekeyaKing Aswapati ruled Kekaya kingdom when Janaka was the king of Videha. Possibly they were next to each other in Gandhara region of Aryavarta - refer Afganistan map shown below for Kandhara/Gandhara region to locate Harahvaiti/Saraswati river.
Satapatha Brahmana mentions that Videha Kingdom near Kekeya was on the river Saraswati(Harahvaiti) earlier and later shifted to current Videha(Sadanira) near Ganges as Aryan tribes migration happened towards Ganges.

Avestan geography is the compilation of the geographical references in the Avesta (the primary collection of Zoroastrian religious texts) which are limited to the regions on the eastern Iranian Plateau up to Indo-Iranian border. It was common among the Indo-Iranians to identify concepts or features of traditional cosmography—mountains, lakes, rivers, etc.—with their concrete historical and geographical situation as they migrated and settled in various places. Below is reference to Avestan Geography:

Aryā daiŋ́hāvā “the Aryan lands” —The Achaemenid Empire, or Achaemenid Persian Empire, (550–330 BC) was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Persia (or Iran). It followed the Median Empire as the second great empire of the Iranian peoples.

Old Persian cuneiform(one of the oldest form of human writing) and Sanskrit pronunciation has striking similarities. 

Avestan and Sanskrit relation : There are several passages in the Vedas, especially the Atharvaveda and Avesta that are identical, except that they are in the different languages of Avestan and Vedic Sanskrit. Ahura Mazda, whom the Zoroastrians worship as the Supreme Lord is the Avestan equivalent to Vedic Sanskrit's Asura Medhira.
ScriptureSanskritAvestanEnglish Translation
Ṛgveda / AvestaVakshanah Asuramedhasya idam kshethram avayam.Vashna Ahuramazdaaha imam kshathram akunavam.By the grace of Ahuramazda I made this city/realm.
Ṛgveda/ Avestamahaantaa mitraa varunaa samraajaa devaav asuraaha sakhe
sakhaayaam ajaro jarimne agne martyaan amartyas tvam nah
mahaantaa mitraa varunaa devaav ahuraaha sakhe ya fedroi vidaat
patyaye caa vaastrevyo at caa khatratave ashaauno ashavavyo
O Ahura Mazda, you appear as the father, the ruler, the friend, the worker and as knowledge.
It is your immense mercy that has given a mortal the fortune to stay at your feet.

Further, there are striking similarities between the Eastern Iranian language of Avestan and Sanskrit, which may support the notion that the split was contemporary with the Vedic civilization living in Afghanistan at a very early stage. It is believed that King Vishtaspa was early follower of Zoroastrianism and and instrumental in the diffusion of the prophet's message - Zarathustra

Ceremonies using a sace or ses  which is a tray that holds various ceremonial utensils is almost similar to rituals done by Brahmin priests in Hindu community.

Even Thread ceremony of Brahmins is similar to Navjot of Zoroastrianism.

Inside house Brahmin ceremonies like Havana, Hoama is almost similar like rituals of Zoroastrianism:

RigVedic Soma Yajna Ceremony is almost similar to Haoma(Hom) of Zoroastrians. Haoma is Persian word.

Origins - "India", "Indus" and "Hindu"

The word "Hindu" came into existence because ancient Persians pronounced Sanskrit river name "Sindhu" as "Hindu" and Greeks pronounced "Hindus" as "Indus". Ancient Persians(Indo-Iranians) share common ancestry with the ancient Indians. Indu or Sindu or Hindu cannot be called as a religion, it is just a way of life for Indians. Hindu does not claim any one prophet; it does not worship any one god; it does not subscribe to any one dogma; it does not believe in any one philosophic concept; it does not follow any one set of religious rites or performances and it may broadly be described as a way of life and nothing more.
Hindu could:
1. Follow any of the Hindu schools of philosophy, such as Advaita (non-dualism), Vishishtadvaita (non-dualism of the qualified whole), Dvaita (dualism), Dvaitadvaita (dualism with non-dualism)
2. Follow a tradition centered on any particular form of the Divine, such as Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Shaktism
3. Practice any one of the various forms of yoga systems in order to achieve moksha – that is freedom in current life (jivanmukti) or salvation in after-life (videhamukti)
4. Practice bhakti or puja for spiritual reasons, which may be directed to one's guru or to a divine image.A visible public form of this practice is worship before an idol or statue.
Hinduism has different traditions as below. Goddess Durga is a central deity in Shaktism tradition of Hinduism, where she is equated with the concept of ultimate reality called Brahman.One of the most important texts of Shaktism is Devi Mahatmya, also known as Durgā Saptashatī, which celebrates Durga as the Goddess, declaring her as the Supreme Being and the creator of the universe. In Vaishnava traditions, Lord Vishnu is central deity. Lord Vishnu is revered in one of many distinct incarnations

With arrival of Indo-Aryans into Indian sub-continent, from Indian side, Kambojas are included in the Uttarapatha. In ancient literature, the Kamboja is variously associated with the Gandhara, Darada and the Bahlika (Bactria) and is also referred in the Rigveda. The Mahājanapadas (Sanskrit: महाजनपद, lit. 'great realm', from maha, "great", and janapada "foothold of a people") were sixteen kingdoms or oligarchic republics that existed in Northern ancient India from the sixth to fourth centuries BCE during the second urbanization period. The 6th–5th centuries BCE is often regarded as a major turning point in early Indian history; during this period India's first large cities arose after the demise of the Indus Valley CivilizationArchaeologically, this period has been identified as corresponding in part to the Northern Black Polished Ware culture. 

Using similar reverse engineering techniques, we can easily decipher Indus Valley script using Brahmi Script

Graffiti marks resembling Brahmi letters have been found among the Neolithic rock engravings on a rock on the Thovari hills near Ambalavayal in Wayanad district(Kerala, India). We can also see a graffiti sign almost like Indus valley signs used in Tissamaharama inscription No. 53(black and red ware Pottery) of Srilanka and the language here used appears to be Indo-Aryan.

I have tried to decipher few more Tamizh/Brahmi script dating to 500 BCE found at Porunthal site located 12 km South West of Palani, Tamil Nadu.

Tamil-Brahmi script on a pot rim, reading “a ma na shasana”, meaning a Jaina, has been found at Pattanam in Ernakulam district, Kerala, establishing that Jainism was prevalent on the west coast at least from second century CE (Common Era).

Dravidian and Indo-Aryan languages co-existed and below is one such example based on coins circulated from Indian empires as early as 100 BCE - 200 AD.

Sanatana Philosophy
Below are six major schools of thoughts in Sanatana philosophy—Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mimamsa and Vedanta. ( Each one is better than other in path of self realization and all these emerged by debating merits and demerits of each school of thoughts in most non-violent way by Vedic Scholars) 
1. Samkhya. This is an oldest and strongly dualism theoretical exposition of consciousness and matter. Samkhya School espouses dualism between consciousness and matter. It regards the universe as consisting of two realities: Purusha (Consciousness) and prakriti (matter). Samkhya philosophy includes a theory of gunas (qualities, innate tendencies, psyche). Guna, it states, are of three types: Sattva being good, compassionate, illuminating, positive, and constructive; Rajas guna is one of activity, chaotic, passion, impulsive, potentially good or bad; and Tamas being the quality of darkness, ignorance, destructive, lethargic, negative. Everything, all life forms and human beings, state Samkhya scholars, have these three gunas, but in different proportions. The interplay of these gunas defines the character of someone or something, of nature and determines the progress of life.

2. Yoga, this comprises the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Many types of Yoga, such as raja yoga, jnana yoga, karma yoga, bhakti yoga, tantra yoga, mantra yoga, laya yoga, and hatha yoga and closely related to Samkhya school of thoughts emphasising meditation, contemplation and liberation. The Yoga school builds on the Samkhya school theory that jnana (knowledge) is a sufficient means to moksha (Liberation to Universal Spirit)

3. Nyaya or logic, which explores sources of knowledge using Nyaya Sutras. It holds that human suffering results from mistakes/defects produced by activity under wrong knowledge (notions and ignorance and Moksha (liberation), it states, is gained through right knowledge. The six means of knowledge are:
•Pratyaksha: Knowledge thru Perception
•Anumana : Knowledge thru Inference
•Upamana : Knowledge by Comparison
•Sabda : Knowledge directly through Words
•Arthapatti : Knowledge thru postulation
•Anupalabhi : Knowledge based on absence
4. Vaiseika, an empiricist school of atomism. It postulates that all objects in the physical universe are reducible to atoms and that one's experiences are derived from the interplay of substance (a function of atoms, their number and their spatial arrangements), quality, activity, commonness, particularity and inherence. Knowledge and liberation are achievable by complete understanding of the world of experience. This philosophy is credited to Kashyapa during Vedic times.
5. Mimamsa: Mimamsa deals with analysis of Vedic mantras. There are two branches of Mimamsa called Purva mimamsa and Uttara mimamsa. The Purva mimamsa analyses the Karma part of Vedas and the Uttara mimamsa for Jnana part.
6. Vedanta:  Vedanta came to be the dominant current of Hinduism in the post-medieval period. Vedanta again has several divisions and primary is Advaita and Dvaita.
Advaita literally means "not two, sole, unity". It is a sub-school of Vedanta, and asserts spiritual and universal non-dualism. Its metaphysics is a form of absolute monism that is all ultimate reality is interconnected oneness. Dvaita Vedanta is a dualistic interpretation of the Vedas, espouses dualism by theorizing the existence of two separate realities.

What are Vedas and What does it Preach?
Ancient Vedic philosophy basically comprises of Vedas, Puranas and Upanishads. The Vedas are perhaps the oldest written text on our planet today. The Vedas are divided into four groups, Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharvaveda.
1. Rig Veda: Hymns in Prayer (Stotras) forms dedicated to Gods in tradition. It is a collection of 1,028 Vedic Sanskrit hymns and 10,600 verses in all, organized into ten books (Sanskrit: mandalas). The hymns are dedicated to Rigvedic deities. The books were composed by sages and poets from different priestly groups over a period. About two-thirds of Rigveda is about the gods Agni (Fire) and Indra (Ruler of the gods). Rigveda contains a sense of intimate communion between Nature and the Rishis or visionaries
2. Sama Veda: The Sama-Veda is the “Veda of chants” or “Knowledge of melodies”. Hymns in Music& Melody form. A collection of hymns used by the priests during the Soma sacrifice. Many of these duplicate in part or in whole hymns from the Rig Veda
3. Yajur Veda is the Veda of ritual. The ritual is to recreate the universe within our own psyche and thereby unite the individual with the universal
4. Atharva Veda: Hymns which were focused on avoid calamities and sufferings.

The Puranas
The Purana literature are in story form and voluminous in nature. There are 18 main puranas and most of the popular puranas were written by Vyasa. Puranas were the medium to teach the common man on values of life through an intelligent weaving of mythological stories. Some of the most popular puranas include Skanda purana, Agni Purana, Bhagavatha Purana , Vishnu Purana , Siva Purana and so on…..
The Upanishads:
The Upanishads are largely philosophical works in dialog form. They discuss question of nature philosophy and the fate of the soul, and contain some mystic and spiritual interpretations of the Vedas. The compiler of the Vedas and Puranas was Vyasa and referred as Veda Vyasa.

Spread of Sanatana Culture in Indian sub-continent:
This Sanatana culture and school of thoughts (referred as Sanatana Dharma) at one point was all over India and South East Asia. You can still see the remains of this rich culture in the Hindu temples of Angkor Wat, Bali and Thailand.
Sages were main reason to spread this culture and wherever these sages have travelled, the culture has spread. It starts from Agastya, Adi Shankaracharya so on.
Adi Shankaracharya helped to unite various school of thoughts under one single foundation of Sanatana Dharma (currently referred as Hinduism). Adi Shankara traveled across the Indian Subcontinent to propagate his philosophy through discourses and debates with other thinkers. The united Indian culture what we see today was due to Adi Shankara’s contribution those days.

As we all know, civilizations of Mesopotamian got destroyed in times and so as Egyptian, Roman, Persian and several 100's which had such a beautiful heritage and powerful empires got vanished except Sanatana Philosophy(Hinduism) that prevailed from oldest Sarasvati civilization and still strong as of today. Oldest ancestral culture was nurtured and preserved in India from several centuries even after several invasions. The main reason beyond this is Hinduism. Hinduism has no known founder and no single book to be followed which easily allowed scholars to do reforms for better philosophical and religious practices in times that can digest any kind of cultural invasions. Hinduism is a culture that constantly evolves and not stagnant with set of rules. India is a Place of Re-union of many Religions, people union of different languages, union of diverse cultures that settled here in times. It strongly feel that it was India that kept alive a message of Unity in Diversity and protected all the ancient cultures as it is from several thousand years of human history. Thanks for reading this blog.

References that I used for this research work :

Stellarium Astronomy Software

 ( Capturing all Star mythology)

History of ancient Indo-Aryan society from research book of Dr. B R Ambedkar (Chief architect of the Constitution of India) - Who Were the Shudras? - Wikipedia :

Understanding Zoroastrianism and Aryan HomelandsZoroastrianism Zoroastrian Zarathushtra Zarathustra Zoroaster Zoroastrians

Understanding Kharosthi writing and all other ancient scripts: htttp://

Constellation(Orion) :

DNA reference ( R1a particularly
International DNA project. - 
Also reference to below Wikipedia will lead to several links and other reliable scientific projects related to this topic-

Arctic Origin of Vedas -
Vedas, Puranas and Upanishads: