By : Arvind Bhagwath
Reference link for SB 5.23.3: purport: https://vedabase.io/en/library/sb/5/23/3/
Dhruvaloka(Pole Star), the abode of Lord Viṣṇu within this universe, is situated 1,300,000 yojanas from the seven stars(Big Dipper). In the planetary system of Dhruvaloka are the planets of the fire-god(Agni), Indra, Prajāpati, Kaśyapa and Dharma, all of whom are very respectful to the great devotee Dhruva, who lives on the polestar. Like bulls yoked to a central pivot, all the planetary systems revolve around Dhruvaloka, impelled by eternal time. Those who worship the virāṭ-puruṣa, the universal form of the Lord, conceive of this entire rotating system of planets as an animal known as śhiśhumāra. This imaginary śhiśhumāra is another form of the Lord. The head of the śhiśhumāra form is downward, and its body appears like that of a coiled snake. On the end of its tail is Dhruvaloka, on the body of the tail are Prajāpati, Agni, Indra and Dharma, and on the root of the tail are Dhātā and Vidhātā. On its waist are the seven great sages. The entire body of the śhiśhumāra faces toward its right and appears like a coil of stars. On the right side of this coil are the fourteen prominent stars from Abhijit to Punarvasu, and on the left side are the fourteen prominent stars from Puṣyā to Uttarāṣāḍhā. The stars known as Punarvasu and Puṣyā are on the right and left hips of the śhiśhumāra, and the stars known as Ārdrā and Aśleṣā are on the right and left feet of the śhiśhumāra. Other stars are also fixed on different sides of the Śhiśhumāra planetary system according to the calculations of Vedic astronomers. To concentrate their minds, yogīs worship the Śhiśhumāra planetary system, which is technically known as the kuṇḍalini-cakra.
Importance on Alignment of Temples in Cardinal directions
The basic idea of any ancient temples is a representation of the macrocosm (Geo-Centric view of the universe), and ancient temples are aligned in cardinal directions, in the directions of solstices and other solar events. As we have learnt now from previous explanation, Solstice Axis represents Heaven Gates towards Circumpolar location (Heaven), and Sun was represented as Soul of God/Divine spirit. The day of summer solstice or when the Sun is exactly over head is auspicious in every religion.
Due to this, any river that is north flowing or changes the direction towards north or north-easterly direction becomes sacred or auspicious. It normally becomes a holy site and people make offerings for the souls of their ancestors. According to Hindu belief, the soul wanders after death until pindadan, or religious service seeking salvation for the dead from the cycle of rebirth, is performed. Pindadan is traditionally offered on the banks of holy river. It is mandatory for Hindu devotees offering pindadan to shave their heads and take a holy dip.
Chawmos (Chitrimas from Cāturmāsyá) is a festival of the Kalash people of Pakistan during Winter Solstice (December 7-22). It involves much music, dancing, and the sacrifice of many goats to the god Balimain. Kalash people are Dardic Indo-Aryan indigenous people that follow religion that was close to ancient RigVedic tribes.
Sacrificial ceremonies continue even today in many cultures and religions based on these ancient star myths, however for economical purposes, the goats have replaced the bull or buffalo. In Hinduism, animal sacrifice is mostly associated with Vedic Śrauta rituals, Shaktism, and in currents of folk Hinduism strongly rooted in local popular or tribal traditions.
In later days, animal sacrifices were banned in several branches of Hinduism as religious reforms taken by several ancient Hindu sages and replaced with coconut with 3 dark spots (assumed to be like animal head). Coconut breaking ritual in Hinduism is a form of bloodless sacrifice.
In comparative mythology, other good example that I can find is usage of bells in Temples or Churches which has Egyptian origin, which was later taken in Judaism, Roman religions and finally in Christianity after priesthood of Egypt/knowledge of bells/gongs was adapted in Christianity.
Constellations near North Pole Star and concept of God and Heaven mythology:
As mentioned below, Earth axis encounters a motion called precession which causes our axis to trace out an imaginary circle on the celestial sphere every 26,000 years. This is the same calculation which ancient Vedic astrologers referred as Yugas.
Many famous Buddhist and as well as Hindu temples have been built as symbolic representations of this mountain and several myths have been associated with this holy mountain. If we refer Hindu Puranas in particular, it describes that Gods reside at north direction. In one of reference to Lord Brahma's day and night, it is mentioned that his one day is equivalent to one year for humans and this appears to be based on idea that north pole has six months of sunlight and six months of darkness, which makes it day and night for one year.
Below image is representation of complete Hindu Mythology Family Tree :
NOTE : Due to Earth's precession cycle, location of Pole star(Dhruva) appears to have changed from earlier Puranic reference from tail of Shishumara(Draco) to tail of Ursa Minor(Current Polaris).
Reference : https://www.wisdomlib.org/definition/shishumara
Even AtharvaVeda Parishishta also indicates that North Pole star was in the Draco (Shishumara) constellation as mentioned above.
Chandra(Moon God) is synonymous to Soma. Other names include Indu ("bright drop"), Atrisuta ("son of Atri"), Sachin ("marked by hare"), Tārādhipa ("lord of stars") and Nishakara ("the night maker").
In Hindu mythology, Chandra(Moon God) met Tara, the wife of Brihaspati (planet Jupiter) and abducted her. From their union, Tara became pregnant, giving birth to Budha (planet Mercury). Brihaspati, being upset, declared a war but the Devas intervened and Tara was returned to Brihaspati. Budha's son was Pururavas who established the Chandravanshi Dynasty as shown in Hindu mythology chart above under Atri.
Divine mother Goddess is an aspect of Goddess Saraswati, Goddess Lakshmi and Goddess Parvati, all three in one form, a form of Adi Shakti, as she is the human form of the Gayatri writings of the Vedas, hence called Gayatri meaning 'Gaya' to sing and 'tri' referring to the three Goddess, is the source of Brahma's power.The Gāyatrī Mantra is also known as the Sāvitrī mantra, is a highly revered mantra from the Rig Veda and dedicated to praise the glory of the universe creator
- When Jupiter enters in Aquarius and Sun and Moon in Aries and Sagittarius respectively ,Kumbh is held at Haridwar.
- When the Jupiter is in Taurus and the Sun and Moon are in Capricorn or Makra, the kumbha is held at Prayag.
- When the Jupiter enters in Leo and the Sun and Moon in Cancer, the Kumbha is held at Nashik and Trimbakeshwar.
- When Jupiter is in Leo and the Sun and Moon in Aries, the Kumbha is held at Ujjain.
During this period Brihaspati(Jupiter) became the Guru of the Devas. Due to the hatred Sukracarya(Venus) became the Guru of Asuras. He helped them achieve victory over the Devas and used his knowledge to revive the dead and wounded among them. The planets Mercury and Saturn are considered friendly to Shukra, the Sun, the Moon and Jupiter are hostile, and the rest are considered neutral. Lunar nodes like Rahu and Ketu are also referred as bad planets(Asuras).
Reference : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesha_Sankranti
Jesus Christ incarnation symbolizes the movement of the Sun God into Age of Pisces(100 BCE till 2700 AD)
In Babylonian myths, he was known as Nebo (Nebu) who was the son of Marduk. Iconography of Marduk is like Vedic Maruts (Immortals) - AMARA in Sanskrit means “deathless” or “immortal.” Names like Hārūt and Mārūt also appears in Quran (2:102) which sounds like Haurvatat and Ameretāt of Zoroastrian scriptures. Haurvatat and Ameretāt are archangels in Amesha Spenta. Etymologically, Avestan Haurvatat derives from an Indo-Iranian root and is linguistically related to Vedic Sanskrit Sarvatāt "intactness, perfection" and Ameretat in Sanskrit is Amaratva (immortal/deathless). Hindu God Maruti is Chiranjeevi(deathless).
The Lullubi or Lulubi were a group of tribes during the 3rd millennium BC, from a region known as Lulubum, now the Sharazor plain of the Zagros Mountains of modern Iraqi Kurdistan. We can see several victory steles commemorating the victory of the Kings and associated with iconography of Orion standing over dwarf (Lepus constellation). Below is one such example:
- 10,000 to 8000 BC – The destruction of the original Arctic home by the last Ice Age and the commencement of the post-Glacial period.
- 8000 to 5000 BC – The age of migration from the original home. The survivors of the Aryan race roamed over the northern parts of Europe and Asia in search of lands suitable for new settlements. B G Tilak calls it the Pre-Orion Period.
- 5000 to 3000 BC. - The Orion period, when the vernal equinox was in Orion.
- 3000 to 1400 BC – The Krittika period, when the Vernal equinox was in Pleiades.
- 1400 to 500 BC – The Pre-Buddhistic period, when the Sutras and the Philosophical systems made their appearance.
Dr. B R Ambedkar(Father of Indian Constitution) has done very in-depth analysis of Vedas and has very beautifully explained these myths and associated creation of races(Varnas) in his book -
Below is Sumerian Icon Gilgamesh(Orion) fighting with Taurus(Bull of Heaven).
- Manu/Mannus, ancestral figure in Germanic mythology ( Reference : ) and also refer ( ) - Tuisto, Tvastar
- Minos, king of Crete, son of Zeus and Europa
- Manu (Hinduism), Progenitor of humanity
- Nu'u, Hawaiian mythological character who built an ark and escaped a Great Flood
- Nüwa, goddess in Chinese mythology best known for creating mankind
- Noah, ancestral figure in all Abrahamic religions mentioned in Genesis flood narrative () Reference :
Navagrahas are nine heavenly bodies (as well as deities) that influence human life on Earth in Hinduism and Hindu astrology. The term is derived from Nava (Sanskrit: नव "nine") and Grahas (Sanskrit: ग्रह "planet, seizing, laying hold of, holding".
Navagrahas in Hindu temples are devoted to Navagrahas—the nine (Nava) major celestial bodies (Grahas) of Hindu astronomy. These temples are made of stones and are very beautiful. These celestial bodies are named Surya (Sun), Chandra (Moon), Mangala (Mars), Budha (Mercury), Brihaspati (Jupiter), Shukra (Venus), Shani (Saturn), Rahu (North Lunar Node) and Ketu (South Lunar Node). Many temples in South India contain a shrine dedicated to the Navagrahas.
Out of those nine planets, seven are named after the planets in the Solar System and the other two (Rahu and Ketu) are actually demons in Hindu mythology.If you observe Vedic calendar, you can find that ancient people believed that each hour of the day was governed by one of the deities associated with the celestial bodies. Hindu texts used the lunar cycle for setting months and days, but the solar cycle to set the complete year. As per Hindu astrology Rahu and Ketu have an orbital cycle of 18 years and are always 180 degrees from each other orbital. If you remove these two lunar nodes ( Rahu and Ketu), you can arrive at 7 days week as represented below:
In similar way, Indus Valley writings might have gradually replaced by early Brahmi Script from which almost all South Asian scripts are evolved. Below are few reverse engineering techniques used to decipher both Indus valley writing and Linear Elamite scripts using Brahmi and Kharosthi Script.
I believe Proto-Kharosthi script of Kandahar/Gandhara region was evolved from earlier Linear Elamite script. For the fact, the Helmand culture of western Afghanistan was a Bronze Age culture of the 3rd millennium BCE. Scholars link it with the Shahr-i Sokhta, Mundigak, and Bampur sites.
Helmand civilization flourished between 3200 and 2350 BCE and may have coincided with first phase of the great flourishing Indus Valley Civilization. The Jiroft culture flourished in the eastern Iran, and the Helmand culture in western Afghanistan at the same time. In fact, they may represent the same cultural area and hence the Jiroft and Helmand cultures are closely related and single culture. The Mehrgarh culture, on the other hand, flourished far earlier.
- Sarayu river is mentioned in RigVeda(RV X.64.9, IV.30.18.,V.53.9) and this river is identified with Avestan Harayu or Hari-rud of Afghanistan
- Kubha river mentioned in RigVeda(RV V.53.9, X.75.6.) is identified with the Kabul river of Afghanistan.
- Krumu river mentioned in RigVeda(RV V.53.9, X.75.6) is identified with the Kurram river of Afghanistan.
- Many scholars mention that Rigvedic description(Rigveda (RV 6.61.8) of Saraswati and Avestan description of Harahvaiti in Helmand is almost same.
The settlement near Helmand - Harahvaiti(Saraswati) basin appeared around 3200 BCE in and around location of Ram Shahristan (or Abrashariyar) which also was the ancient capital of Sistan (Sakastan), in what is now southwestern Afghanistan and southeastern Iran. Sir-ra-an-qa was Elamite reference for Zranka(current Zaranj) as captured below.
Shahr-i Sokhta(Burnt city) in Zaranj had four stages of civilization and was burnt down three times before being abandoned. Shahr-i Sokhta shows signs of advanced civilization between the ages of 2900 and 1900 BC.
Using reverse engineering techniques, we can easily decipher Linear Elamite scripts using Kharosthi Script as shown below:
“SITHAYA”(Furrow/Plowed) in Jiroft Linear Elamite clearly appears Proto-Kharoshthi Script.
Vakhsh in its eastern parts(Vak means Speech in Sanskrit)
- Shraddhadeva Manu — ancestor of humans(Father of Ikshvaku)
- Yama — Lord of Death
- Yami — Lady of Yamuna
- Ashvins — The divine twin physicians.
- Revanta — Master of horses
The Kalasha(Sanskrit: कलश kalaśa; literally "pitcher, pot") is considered a symbol of abundance and "source of life" in the Vedas and known from the time of Rigveda. The Kalasha is believed to contain amrita(Soma), the elixir of life, and thus is viewed as a symbol of abundance, wisdom, and immortality.
Ancient Vedic deities were revered only in Kalash community or tribe, the ancient Hindu god Yama Râja is referred as Imr'o in Kâmviri, Imra (*Yama Rājan), Māra 'death' (Nuristani). According to Sanskrit linguist Michael Witzel, the traditional Kalash religion shares many of the traits of myths, ritual, society, and echoes many aspects of Rigvedic, but not of the post-Rigvedic religion that developed in India.
Nouns ( Croatian and Russian)
Verbs ( Croatian and Russian)
vad – vadit
vad – vadati
to confer or dispute about; to contend, quarrel
pros – prosit
prach – prachhati
to ask, to question, interrogate
vɨspra – vɨsprašivaet
viprach – viprcchati
to ask various questions, make various inquiries
peč – pečyot
pас – pacati
to cook, bake, roast, boil
lay – laet
rai – rayati
bɨ – budet
bhū – bhavati
to become, be
tuz – tuzit
tuj – tojayati
gor – gorit
ghṛ – ghаrati
to shine, burn
las – laskaet
las – lasāti
to play, sport, frolic; to embrace
voz – vozit
vah – vahati
to carry, transport, convey
lov – lovit
labh – labhate
to take, seize, catch
lel – lelyeet
lal – lālayati
to caress, fondle, foster, cherish
bav – bаvit
bhū – bhavayati
exist, be found, live, stay, abide, happen, occur; to cause to be or become; to cherish, foster
kasl – kaslyaet
kās – kāsate
svet – svetaet
śvit – śvetate
to be bright or white
mer – mryot
mṛ – marati
to die, decease
pi – p’yot
pī – piyate
suš – sušit
śuṣ – śuṣyati
to dry, become dry or withered
mor – morit
mṛ – mārayati
to cause to die, kill, slay
pad – padyot
pad – padyate
perd – perdit
pard – pardati
to break wind downwards
boya – boitsya
bhyas – bhyasate
to fear, be afraid, tremble
otda – otdayot
uddā – uddadāti
to give away
vɨd – vɨdayot
vidā – vidadāti
to give out, distribute, grant
po – poit
pa – pāyayati
to cause to drink, give to drink, water (horses or cattle)
i – idyot
iṭ – eṭati
bɨv – bɨvaet
bhū – bhavati
to happen, occur
mes – mesit
miśr – miśrayati
to mix, mingle, blend, combine
zna – znaet
jña – jānāti
to know, have knowledge
liz – ližet
lih – lihati
vɨliz – vɨlizɨvaet
vilih – vilelihat
to lick continually or repeatedly
živ – živaet
jīv – jīvati
to live, be or remain alive
ver – veraet
vṛ – varati
to cove, screen, veil, conceal, hide, surround, obstruct, to close (a door)
lyub – lyubit
lubh – lubhati
to desire greatly or eagerly, long for, be interested in
vorot – vorotit
vṛt – vartayati
to cause to turn or revolve
top – topit
tap – tapati
to make hot or warm
mer – merit
mi – miroti
to measure, meter, out, mark
do – doit
dhe – dhayati
to suck, drink
val – valit
val – valiti
to turn, turn round
vɨlup – vɨlupit
vilup – vilumpati
to tear or break off or to pieces, wound, lacerate pull out or up; to tear away
slav – slavit
śram – śramyati
sound, shout, loud praise
tyan – tyanet
tan – tanoti
to stretch (a cord), extend
ri – rinet
rī – riṇāti
to release, set free, let go
vert – vertit
vṛt – vartate
to turn, turn round, revolve, roll
rev – revyot
ru – ravīti
to roar, bellow, howl, yelp, cry aloud
val – valyaet
val – valate
to turn, turn round
vid – vidit
vid – vidati
to notice, observe; to know, understand, perceive, learn, become or be acquainted with, be conscious of
isk – iščet
iṣ – icchati; eṣati
to seek, search; to desire, wish, long for, request
proda – prodast
pradā – pradatte
to give away, give, offer, sell
oddel – oddelyaet
uddal – uddalati
to split away, break away
tryas – tryasyot
tras – trasyati
bles – bleščet
bhlāś – bhlāśate
to shine, beam, glitter
sid – sidit
sad – sīdati
to sit upon or in or at smth.
spa – spit
svap – svapiti
to sleep, fall asleep
rɨd – rɨdaet
rud – rodati
to weep, cry, howl, roar, lament, wail
klešč – kleščit
kliś – kliśnati
to torment, cause pain
bde – bdit
budh – budhyati
to be awake
lip – lipnet
lip – limpyati
to be smeared; to be attached to, to stick, to adhere
lep – lepit
lip – lepayati
the act of smearing, daubing, anointing, plastering
vɨtyan – vɨtyanet
vitan – vitanute
to spread out, to stretch, extend, to unfold, display, exhibit, manifest
vɨživ – vɨživaet
vijīv – vijīvati
to revive, return to life
slad – sladit
svad – svadati
to make sweet or pleasant or agreeable
plav – plavaet
plu – plavate
to float, swim
bra – beryot
bhṛ – bharati
to hold, possess, have, keep
mni – mnit
mna – manate
to think, believe, imagine
pɨt – pɨtaet
piṭh – peṭhati
to inflict or feel pain
kas – kasaet
kaṣ – kaṣati
to test, try; to rub
vɨver – vɨvernet
vivṛti – vivartate
to turn back or away
vert – vertaet
vṛt – vartate
to turn, turn round
vert – vertit
vrt – vartayati
to cause to turn or revolve
bud – budit
budh – budhyate
to wake up
vol – volit
vṛ – vṛṇoti; varayati
to choose, select, choose for one’s self, choose as; to like, love well
- Vedic Mitra and Avestan Mithra (Roman-Graeco Mithras)
- Vedic Aryaman and Avestan Airyaman
- Vedic Varuna and Avestan Ahuramazda
- Vedic Indra and Avestan Verethra
- Vedic Surya and Avestan Hvarxsaeta
- Vedic Agni and Avestan Atar (Roman-Graceo culture - Ignis)
- Vedic Hiranya and Avestan Zaranya (Gold)
- Vedic Seyna and Avestan Hayna (Army)
- Vedic Rsti and Avestan Arsti (Spear)
- Vedic Ksatra and Avestan Xsatra (Sovereignty)
- Vedic Asura and Avestan Ahura (Lord)
- Vedic Yajna and Avestan Yasna (Sacrifice)
- Vedic Hotar and Avestan Zaotar (Sacrificing Priest)
- Vedic Soma and Avestan Haoma (Sacrificing Drink)
- Vedic Turvasas and Avestan Tuiryas (Turan tribes)
- Vedic Purus and Avestan Pouru (Pouru tribes)
- Vedic Dasyu and Avestan Dahai ( Dahan Scythians)
- Vedic Parsu and Avestan Parsa
- Vedic Saraswati and Avestan Haraxvaiti (Arachosia)
- Vedic Sapta Sindhu and Avestan Hapta Hindu( Indus River)
- Vedic Sarayu and Avestan Harayu( Hari River — Afghanistan)
- Vedic Panis and Avestan Parthians(Scythian tribe)
- Vedic Yavanas and Avestan Yauna(Ionians - Greeks)
- Vedic Bhalanas to Bhalanas tribes lived in East Kabulistan(Bolan Pass)
- Vedic Vaikarṇa (Vaikarna) (Udichya Āryāvarta — Northern Āryāvarta)tribes to Avestan Varkana Tribes — Varkana (thought to mean land of the wolves) — Hyrcania, Old Persian Varkana, (“Wolf’s Land”), ancient region located southeast of the Caspian Sea.
|Ṛgveda / Avesta||Vakshanah Asuramedhasya idam kshethram avayam.||Vashna Ahuramazdaaha imam kshathram akunavam.||By the grace of Ahuramazda I made this city/realm.|
|Ṛgveda/ Avesta||mahaantaa mitraa varunaa samraajaa devaav asuraaha sakhe||mahaantaa mitraa varunaa devaav ahuraaha sakhe ya fedroi vidaat||O Ahura Mazda, you appear as the father, the ruler, the friend, the worker and as knowledge.|
RigVedic Soma Yajna Ceremony is almost similar to Haoma(Hom) of Zoroastrians. Haoma is Persian word.
1. Follow any of the Hindu schools of philosophy, such as Advaita (non-dualism), Vishishtadvaita (non-dualism of the qualified whole), Dvaita (dualism), Dvaitadvaita (dualism with non-dualism)
2. Follow a tradition centered on any particular form of the Divine, such as Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Shaktism
3. Practice any one of the various forms of yoga systems in order to achieve moksha – that is freedom in current life (jivanmukti) or salvation in after-life (videhamukti)
4. Practice bhakti or puja for spiritual reasons, which may be directed to one's guru or to a divine image.A visible public form of this practice is worship before an idol or statue.
Using similar reverse engineering techniques, we can easily decipher Indus Valley script using Brahmi Script
I have tried to decipher few more Tamizh/Brahmi script dating to 500 BCE found at Porunthal site located 12 km South West of Palani, Tamil Nadu.
2. Yoga, this comprises the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Many types of Yoga, such as raja yoga, jnana yoga, karma yoga, bhakti yoga, tantra yoga, mantra yoga, laya yoga, and hatha yoga and closely related to Samkhya school of thoughts emphasising meditation, contemplation and liberation. The Yoga school builds on the Samkhya school theory that jnana (knowledge) is a sufficient means to moksha (Liberation to Universal Spirit)
3. Nyaya or logic, which explores sources of knowledge using Nyaya Sutras. It holds that human suffering results from mistakes/defects produced by activity under wrong knowledge (notions and ignorance and Moksha (liberation), it states, is gained through right knowledge. The six means of knowledge are:
•Anumana : Knowledge thru Inference
•Upamana : Knowledge by Comparison
•Sabda : Knowledge directly through Words
•Arthapatti : Knowledge thru postulation
•Anupalabhi : Knowledge based on absence
6. Vedanta: Vedanta came to be the dominant current of Hinduism in the post-medieval period. Vedanta again has several divisions and primary is Advaita and Dvaita.
Advaita literally means "not two, sole, unity". It is a sub-school of Vedanta, and asserts spiritual and universal non-dualism. Its metaphysics is a form of absolute monism that is all ultimate reality is interconnected oneness. Dvaita Vedanta is a dualistic interpretation of the Vedas, espouses dualism by theorizing the existence of two separate realities.
Ancient Vedic philosophy basically comprises of Vedas, Puranas and Upanishads. The Vedas are perhaps the oldest written text on our planet today. The Vedas are divided into four groups, Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharvaveda.
Spread of Sanatana Culture in Indian sub-continent:
References that I used for this research work :
Stellarium Astronomy Software( Capturing all Star mythology)
History of ancient Indo-Aryan society from research book of Dr. B R Ambedkar (Chief architect of the Constitution of India) - :
Understanding Zoroastrianism and Aryan Homelands:
Understanding Kharosthi writing and all other ancient scripts:
Constellation(Orion) : http://www.chidambaramhiddentreasure.com/orion-chidambaram/
DNA reference ( R1a particularly) http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_R1a_Y-DNA.shtml
International DNA project. - http://www.r1a.org/2.htm
Also reference to below Wikipedia will lead to several links and other reliable scientific projects related to this topic- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R1a
Arctic Origin of Vedas - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Arctic_Home_in_the_Vedas
Vedas, Puranas and Upanishads: